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Figure 5: : (a-d) Live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D TTE) in atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs). (a) Complete AVSD. Arrowhead shows attachment of the common atrio-ventricular valve (CAV) to the crest of the ventricular septum (Rastelli type A). Arrow points to atrial component of the defect; (b) Complete AVSD. Arrowhead points to an anomalous papillary muscle projecting into the left ventricular outflow tract causing subaortic obstruction; (c and d) Intermediate AVSD; (c) En face view of CAV shows superior bridging (SB) leaf let crossing over into the RV; (d) Both the AO and the PA are seen arising from the RV consistent with double outlet right ventricle (AS: Anterosuperior leaflet; IB: Inferior bridging leaflet; L: Liver; LA: Left atrium; LV: Left ventricle; MI: Mural inferior leaflet; ML: Mural lateral leaflet; PA: Pulmonary artery; PV: Pulmonary valve; RA: Right atrium; RV: Right ventricle; RAV: Right atrioventricular valve; RVO: Right ventricular outflow tract; SB: Superior bridging leaflet). Reproduced with permission from Singh A, Romp RL, Nanda NC, et al. Usefulness of live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in the assessment of atrioventricular septal defects. Echocardiography 2006;23:598-606

Figure 5: : (a-d) Live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D TTE) in atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs). (a) Complete AVSD. Arrowhead shows attachment of the common atrio-ventricular valve (CAV) to the crest of the ventricular septum (Rastelli type A). Arrow points to atrial component of the defect; (b) Complete AVSD. Arrowhead points to an anomalous papillary muscle projecting into the left ventricular outflow tract causing subaortic obstruction; (c and d) Intermediate AVSD; (c) En face view of CAV shows superior bridging (SB) leaf let crossing over into the RV; (d) Both the AO and the PA are seen arising from the RV consistent with double outlet right ventricle (AS: Anterosuperior leaflet; IB: Inferior bridging leaflet; L: Liver; LA: Left atrium; LV: Left ventricle; MI: Mural inferior leaflet; ML: Mural lateral leaflet; PA: Pulmonary artery; PV: Pulmonary valve; RA: Right atrium; RV: Right ventricle; RAV: Right atrioventricular valve; RVO: Right ventricular outflow tract; SB: Superior bridging leaflet). Reproduced with permission from Singh A, Romp RL, Nanda NC, et al. Usefulness of live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in the assessment of atrioventricular septal defects. Echocardiography 2006;23:598-606