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Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
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Table of Contents
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 126-127
In reply


1 Fellow, Freeman hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
2 Medical Superintendent and Senior Professor of Anesthesia, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
3 Professor of Anesthesia, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
4 Senior Professor of Cardiothoracic and Vascular surgery and Director of Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute For Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
5 Additional Professor of Cardiothoracic and Vascular surgery, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

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Date of Submission16-Jul-2019
Date of Acceptance23-Jul-2020
Date of Web Publication22-Jan-2021
 

How to cite this article:
Chandran R, Sreedhar R, Gadhinglajkar S, Dash PK, Karunakaran J, Pillai V. In reply. Ann Card Anaesth 2021;24:126-7

How to cite this URL:
Chandran R, Sreedhar R, Gadhinglajkar S, Dash PK, Karunakaran J, Pillai V. In reply. Ann Card Anaesth [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 16];24:126-7. Available from: https://www.annals.in/text.asp?2021/24/1/126/307754




To the Editor,

Yoandy López-de la Cruz in his letter submits that the internal thoracic artery (ITA) is fed by at least three arterial systems and an increase in the diameter of the artery by sympatholysis will not cause a significant increase in its antegrade flow, since at the same time, the endoluminal resistance to that flow also increases (competition). He also mentions that occluding the distal end of ITA at the beginning of its preparation abolishes early flow competition.[1]

I thank Yoandy López-de la Cruz for the keen interest shown in our study titled ” Combined effect of left stellate ganglion blockade and topical administration of papaverine on left internal thoracic artery blood flow in patients undergoing coronary revascularization”.[2] The idea for this study was based on the study conducted by Gopal et al.[3] where they provided objective data (using fluoroscopy) about vasodilation in the left ITA after Stellate Ganglion Blockade (SGB) using fluoroscopy in 30 patients undergoing coronary angiogram and thus postulated this technique of SGB to be of use in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Dönmez A et al.[4] also conducted a similar study and demonstrate the increase in the size of radial artery and ITA after SGB in patients undergoing CABG.

Internal mammary artery is maximally susceptible to spasm and vasoconstriction in the immediate postoperative period, especially in view of the extensive handling of the artery during the dissection.[5] There are numerous publications available in the literature over the years regarding the use of vasodilators for preventing internal mammary artery spasm after harvesting for CABG, including papaverine,[6] nitroglycerine, calcium channel inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The purpose of using pharmacological agents or a stallate ganglion block is to minimize the resistance to blood flow in the graft by preventing vessel spasm.

In our trial,[2] we tried the use of preemptive stellate ganglion block to prevent the vasoconstriction and spasm of left ITA and utilized flow rate from the cut end of ITA as a way of numerically quantifying our hypothesis. We found that the vasodilatory effects of left SGB are nonadditive to that of papaverine. This was probably because papaverine alone was adequate to completely inhibit the noradrenaline-induced contraction of left ITA.

Distal to the anastomosis of left ITA with left anterior descending artery, blood flow into the coronaries is affected not only by the size of the ITA proximal to anastomosis, but also by numerous other factors including resistance at the site of anastomosis, lie of the vessel, angle of grafting, and competitive flow. In our practice, the distal occlusion of ITA is done after heparinization.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
López de la Cruz Y. In the Internal thoracic artery, more diameter does not always mean more flow. Ann Card Anaesth 2021;24:125-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Chandran R, Sreedhar R, Gadhinglajkar S, Dash P, Karunakaran J, Pillai V. Combined effect of left stellate ganglion blockade and topical administration of papaverine on left internal thoracic artery blood flow in patients undergoing coronary revascularization. Ann Card Anaesth 2020;23:170-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Gopal D, Singh NG, Jagadeesh AM, Ture A, Thimmarayappa A. Comparison of left internal mammary artery diameter before and after left stellate ganglion block. Ann Card Anaesth 2013;16:23-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Dönmez A, Tufan H, Tutar N, Araz C, Sezgin A, Karadeli E, et al. In vivo and in vitro effects of stellate ganglion blockade on radial and internal mammary arteries. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005;19:729-33.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Walpoth BH, Mohadjer A, Gersbach P, Rogulenko R, Walpoth BN, Althaus U, et al. Intraoperative internal mammary artery transit-time flow measurements: Comparative evaluation of two surgical pedicle preparation techniques. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1996;10:1064-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Yavuz S, Celkan A, Göncü T, Türk T, Ozdemir IA. Effect of papaverine applications on blood flow of the internal mammary artery. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;7:84-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    

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Correspondence Address:
Rupa Sreedhar
Professor, Department of Anesthesia, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum - 695 011
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_171_20

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