Stephanie J Pan, Stephen Z Frabitore, Angela R Ingram, Khoa N Nguyen, Phillip S Adams
Department of Anaesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Division of Paediatric Anaesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA
Context: The concomitant use of cuffed endotracheal tubes (ETT) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probes increases ETT cuff pressures (CP), which may contribute to mucosal ischemia and perioperative complications such as failed extubation. Aims: To assess changes in ETT CP after TEE insertion in patients of different age groups undergoing congenital heart surgery and examine the relationship between ETT CP and postoperative extubation failure. Settings and Design: Single-center quality improvement project. Subjects and Methods: ETT CP was measured with a manometer following intubation and again after TEE insertion. Tracheal perfusion pressure was then calculated and postoperative extubation failures were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square testing, Fisher's-exact testing, one-way analysis of variance testing or Kruskal–Wallis testing with Dunn's pairwise, and student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum testing were used to analyze the data. Results: Median ETT CP increased significantly after TEE insertion in each age group, with infants showing a smaller magnitude of increase (+2 [1-6] cm H2O, P < 0.001) than adults (+12 [8-14] cm H2O, P = 0.008) (intergroup comparison P = 0.002). Five patients (9%) failed extubation, all of which were infants. Within the infant subgroup, no significant difference existed between failed vs successful extubation regarding ETT CP during bypass (15 ± 1 vs 16 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.206) or tracheal perfusion pressure pre-bypass (34 ± 9 vs 38 ± 11 mmHg, P = 0.518), during bypass (20 ± 9 vs 22 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.697), or post-bypass (42 ± 9 vs 41 ± 9 mmHg, P = 0.923). There was a significant difference in cardiopulmonary bypass duration (151 ± 29 vs 85 ± 32 min, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Factors beyond intraoperative ETT CP likely play a larger role in postoperative extubation failure.
Phillip S Adams
A-1305 Scaife Hall, 3550 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh - 15261, PA
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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