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Use of autologous umbilical cord blood transfusion in neonates undergoing surgical correction of congenital cardiac defects: A pilot study


1 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of CTVS, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 CN Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Kunal Sarin
Department of Cardiac Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_194_17

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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 270-274

 

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Background: Blood transfusion requirement during neonatal open heart surgeries is universal. Homologous blood transfusion (HBT) in pediatric cardiac surgery is used most commonly for priming of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system and for postoperative transfusion. To avoid the risks associated with HBT in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery, use of autologous umbilical cord blood (AUCB) transfusion has been described. We present our experience with the use of AUCB for neonatal cardiac surgery. Designs and Methods: Consecutive neonates scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery for various cardiac diseases who had a prenatal diagnosis made on the basis of a fetal echocardiography were included in this prospective observational study. After a vaginal delivery or a cesarean section, UCB was collected from the placenta in a 150-mL bag containing 5 mL of citrate–phosphate–dextrose–adenine-1 solution. The collected bag with 70–75 mL cord blood was stored at 2°C–6°C and tested for blood grouping and infections after proper labeling. The neonate's autologous cord blood was used for postcardiac surgery blood transfusion to replace postoperative blood loss. Results: AUCB has been used so far at our institute in 10 neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. The donor exposure in age and type of cardiac surgery-matched controls showed that the neonates not receiving autologous cord blood had a donor exposure to 5 donors (2 packed red blood cells [PRBCs], including 1 for CPB prime and 1 for postoperative loss, 1 fresh frozen plasma, 1 cryoprecipitate, and 1 platelet concentrate) compared to 1 donor for the AUCB neonate (1 PRBC for the CPB prime). Postoperative blood loss was similar in both the groups of matched controls and study group. Values of hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet counts, and blood gas parameters were also similar. Conclusions: Use of AUCB for replacement of postoperative blood loss after neonatal cardiac surgery is feasible and reduces donor exposure to the neonate. Its use, however, requires a prenatal diagnosis of a cardiac defect by fetal echo and adequate logistic and psychological support from involved clinicians and the blood bank.






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1 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of CTVS, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 CN Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Kunal Sarin
Department of Cardiac Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_194_17

Rights and Permissions

Background: Blood transfusion requirement during neonatal open heart surgeries is universal. Homologous blood transfusion (HBT) in pediatric cardiac surgery is used most commonly for priming of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system and for postoperative transfusion. To avoid the risks associated with HBT in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery, use of autologous umbilical cord blood (AUCB) transfusion has been described. We present our experience with the use of AUCB for neonatal cardiac surgery. Designs and Methods: Consecutive neonates scheduled to undergo cardiac surgery for various cardiac diseases who had a prenatal diagnosis made on the basis of a fetal echocardiography were included in this prospective observational study. After a vaginal delivery or a cesarean section, UCB was collected from the placenta in a 150-mL bag containing 5 mL of citrate–phosphate–dextrose–adenine-1 solution. The collected bag with 70–75 mL cord blood was stored at 2°C–6°C and tested for blood grouping and infections after proper labeling. The neonate's autologous cord blood was used for postcardiac surgery blood transfusion to replace postoperative blood loss. Results: AUCB has been used so far at our institute in 10 neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. The donor exposure in age and type of cardiac surgery-matched controls showed that the neonates not receiving autologous cord blood had a donor exposure to 5 donors (2 packed red blood cells [PRBCs], including 1 for CPB prime and 1 for postoperative loss, 1 fresh frozen plasma, 1 cryoprecipitate, and 1 platelet concentrate) compared to 1 donor for the AUCB neonate (1 PRBC for the CPB prime). Postoperative blood loss was similar in both the groups of matched controls and study group. Values of hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet counts, and blood gas parameters were also similar. Conclusions: Use of AUCB for replacement of postoperative blood loss after neonatal cardiac surgery is feasible and reduces donor exposure to the neonate. Its use, however, requires a prenatal diagnosis of a cardiac defect by fetal echo and adequate logistic and psychological support from involved clinicians and the blood bank.






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