Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
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Table of Contents
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 339
Echocardiography for residual VSD

Professor, Cardiac Anaesthesia, CTC, AIIMS, New Delhi - 110029, India

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Date of Web Publication1-Apr-2016

How to cite this article:
Kapoor PM. Echocardiography for residual VSD. Ann Card Anaesth 2016;19:339

How to cite this URL:
Kapoor PM. Echocardiography for residual VSD. Ann Card Anaesth [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Jun 20];19:339. Available from:


The echogenic patch on the septum suggests a previous repair. (Video 1)

TEE Views: A midesophageal inflow-outflow view; transgastric inflow and transgastric outflow view are the best to size the VSD and know the shunt equation.

Additional VSD Post TOF Repair [Figure 2]
Figure 2:

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Aortic Regurgitation - Residual VSD (Video 2)

  • Identify the location, origin, size and blood flow of the pulmonary arteries and the VSD.

Post Operative Residual RVOTO (Video 3)

  • RVOT obstruction most common post TOF/DORV

Residual VSD Post Cardiac Surgery (Video 4)

  • In DORV: Posterior deviation of the outlet septum is seen which may increase the residual shunt.

Additional VSD After Closure of Aortic Regurgitation (Video 5)

  • High gradient across the Left ventricle, post aortic valve replacement.

Additional vsd After Intra-Cardiac Repair (Video 6)

  • Mostly muscular may have significant negative clinical impact, but deranged haemodynamics for good Patient Outcome.
  • 3D TEE can be useful in revealing failed VSD surgical repair.

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.179632

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]