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A randomized prospective analysis of alteration of hemostatic function in patients receiving tranexamic acid and hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass surgery


Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Management, Fortis Hospitals, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Murali Chakravarthy
Fortis Hospitals, Bangalore - 560 076
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.95072

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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 105-110

 

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Postoperative hemorrhagic complications is still one of the major problems in cardiac surgeries. It may be caused by surgical issues, coagulopathy caused by the side effects of the intravenous fluids administered to produce plasma volume expansion such as hydroxyl ethyl starch (HES). In order to thwart this hemorrhagic issue, few agents are available. Fibrinolytic inhibitors like tranexamic acid (TA) may be effective modes to promote blood conservation; but the possible complications of thrombosis of coronary artery graft, precludes their generous use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The issue is a balance between agents that promote coagulation and those which oppose it. Therefore, in this study we have assessed the effects of concomitant use of HES and TA. Thromboelastogram (TEG) was used to assess the effect of the combination of HES and TA. With ethical committee approval and patient's consent, 100 consecutive patients were recruited for the study. Surgical and anesthetic techniques were standardized. Patients fulfilling our inclusion criteria were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 each. The patients in group A received 20 ml/kg of HES (130/0.4), 10 mg/kg of T.A over 30 minutes followed by infusion of 1 mg/kg/hr over the next 12 hrs. The patients in group B received Ringer's lactate + TA at same dose. The patients in the Group C received 20 ml/kg of HES. Group D patients received RL. Fluid therapy was goal directed. Total blood loss was assessed. Reaction time (r), α angle, maximum amplitude (MA) values of TEG were assessed at baseline, 12, 36 hrs. The possible perioperative myocardial infraction (MI) was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG) and troponin T values at the baseline, postoperative day 1. Duration on ventilator, length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were also assessed. The demographical profile was similar among the groups. Use of HES increased blood loss significantly (P < 0.05). Concomitant use of TA reduced blood loss when used along with HES. r value was prolonged at 12 hours in all the groups and α angle was reduced at 12 hours in all the groups, where as MA value was reduced at 12 th hour in the HES group compared to the baseline and increased in TA + HES group. These findings were statistically significant. No significant change in Troponin T values/ ECG, duration of ventilation and LOS ICU was observed. No adverse events was noticed in any of the four groups. HES (130/0.4) used at a dose of 20 ml/kg seems to produce coagulopathy causing increased blood loss perioperatively. Hemodilution produced by fluid therapy seems to produce Coagulopathy as observed by TEG parameters. Concomitant use of TA with HES appears to reverse these changes without causing any adverse effects in patients undergoing OPCAB surgery.






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Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Management, Fortis Hospitals, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
Murali Chakravarthy
Fortis Hospitals, Bangalore - 560 076
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.95072

Rights and Permissions

Postoperative hemorrhagic complications is still one of the major problems in cardiac surgeries. It may be caused by surgical issues, coagulopathy caused by the side effects of the intravenous fluids administered to produce plasma volume expansion such as hydroxyl ethyl starch (HES). In order to thwart this hemorrhagic issue, few agents are available. Fibrinolytic inhibitors like tranexamic acid (TA) may be effective modes to promote blood conservation; but the possible complications of thrombosis of coronary artery graft, precludes their generous use in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The issue is a balance between agents that promote coagulation and those which oppose it. Therefore, in this study we have assessed the effects of concomitant use of HES and TA. Thromboelastogram (TEG) was used to assess the effect of the combination of HES and TA. With ethical committee approval and patient's consent, 100 consecutive patients were recruited for the study. Surgical and anesthetic techniques were standardized. Patients fulfilling our inclusion criteria were randomly allocated into 4 groups of 25 each. The patients in group A received 20 ml/kg of HES (130/0.4), 10 mg/kg of T.A over 30 minutes followed by infusion of 1 mg/kg/hr over the next 12 hrs. The patients in group B received Ringer's lactate + TA at same dose. The patients in the Group C received 20 ml/kg of HES. Group D patients received RL. Fluid therapy was goal directed. Total blood loss was assessed. Reaction time (r), α angle, maximum amplitude (MA) values of TEG were assessed at baseline, 12, 36 hrs. The possible perioperative myocardial infraction (MI) was assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG) and troponin T values at the baseline, postoperative day 1. Duration on ventilator, length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were also assessed. The demographical profile was similar among the groups. Use of HES increased blood loss significantly (P < 0.05). Concomitant use of TA reduced blood loss when used along with HES. r value was prolonged at 12 hours in all the groups and α angle was reduced at 12 hours in all the groups, where as MA value was reduced at 12 th hour in the HES group compared to the baseline and increased in TA + HES group. These findings were statistically significant. No significant change in Troponin T values/ ECG, duration of ventilation and LOS ICU was observed. No adverse events was noticed in any of the four groups. HES (130/0.4) used at a dose of 20 ml/kg seems to produce coagulopathy causing increased blood loss perioperatively. Hemodilution produced by fluid therapy seems to produce Coagulopathy as observed by TEG parameters. Concomitant use of TA with HES appears to reverse these changes without causing any adverse effects in patients undergoing OPCAB surgery.






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