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Figure 4: Characteristic postoperative pattern of arterial pH, lactate, chloride, and sodium over time in a representative single patient (n = 1) who had undergone deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for ascending aorta and hemiarch graft replacement. The gray zone represents the time prior to the initiation of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, the blue zone represents the period of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, the red zone indicates the time period of progressive metabolic acidosis during reperfusion, and the green zone represents the recovery from metabolic acidosis. The black arrows indicate events during the perioperative course. The orange arrows represent times at which sodium bicarbonate was administered (each * = 1 ampule of 44.6 mEq/50 ml). CPB: Cardiopulmonary bypass, CTICU: Cardiothoracic Surgical Intensive Care Unit

Figure 4: Characteristic postoperative pattern of arterial pH, lactate, chloride, and sodium over time in a representative single patient (<i>n</i> = 1) who had undergone deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for ascending aorta and hemiarch graft replacement. The gray zone represents the time prior to the initiation of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, the blue zone represents the period of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, the red zone indicates the time period of progressive metabolic acidosis during reperfusion, and the green zone represents the recovery from metabolic acidosis. The black arrows indicate events during the perioperative course. The orange arrows represent times at which sodium bicarbonate was administered (each * = 1 ampule of 44.6 mEq/50 ml). CPB: Cardiopulmonary bypass, CTICU: Cardiothoracic Surgical Intensive Care Unit