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REVIEW ARTICLE
Clinical Review: Management of weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after cardiac surgery
Marc Licker, John Diaper, Vanessa Cartier, Christoph Ellenberger, Mustafa Cikirikcioglu, Afksendyios Kalangos, Tiziano Cassina, Karim Bendjelid
July-September 2012, 15(3):206-223
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.97977  
A sizable number of cardiac surgical patients are difficult to wean off cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as a result of structural or functional cardiac abnormalities, vasoplegic syndrome, or ventricular dysfunction. In these cases, therapeutic decisions have to be taken quickly for successful separation from CPB. Various crisis management scenarios can be anticipated which emphasizes the importance of basic knowledge in applied cardiovascular physiology, knowledge of pathophysiology of the surgical lesions as well as leadership, and communication between multiple team members in a high-stakes environment. Since the mid-90s, transoesophageal echocardiography has provided an opportunity to assess the completeness of surgery, to identify abnormal circulatory conditions, and to guide specific medical and surgical interventions. However, because of the lack of evidence-based guidelines, there is a large variability regarding the use of cardiovascular drugs and mechanical circulatory support at the time of weaning from the CPB. This review presents key features for risk stratification and risk modulation as well as a standardized physiological approach to achieve successful weaning from CPB.
  45,079 3,441 9
CASE REPORTS
Perioperative anesthetic management of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for noncardiac surgery: A case series
Rajendra K Sahoo, Sananta K Dash, Pradeep S Raut, Usha R Badole, Chitra B Upasani
September-December 2010, 13(3):253-256
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.69049  PMID:20826969
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with or without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is characterized by asymmetric hypertrophy of the interventricular septum causing intermittent obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. Because Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease, it may present to the anesthesiologist more often than anticipated, sometimes in undiagnosed form during routine preoperative visit. Surgery and anesthesia often complicate the perioperative outcome if adequate monitoring and proper care are not taken. Therefore, a complete understanding of the pathophysiology, hemodynamic changes and anesthetic implications is needed for successful perioperative outcome. We hereby describe the perioperative management of three patients with Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for different surgical procedures.
  43,325 1,718 4
TUTORIAL
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, an anesthesiologist's perspective: Physiology and principles. Part 1
Sandeep Chauhan, S Subin
September-December 2011, 14(3):218-229
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.84030  PMID:21860197
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an adaptation of conventional cardiopulmonary bypass techniques to provide cardiopulmonary support. ECMO provides physiologic cardiopulmonary support to aid reversible aspects of the disease process and to allow recovery. ECMO does not provide treatment of the underlying disease. The indications for ECMO support have expanded from acute respiratory failure to acute cardiac failure refractory to conventional treatments from wide patient subsets involving neonates to adults. Vascular access for ECMO support is either percutaneous through a single-site, dual-lumen bicaval cannula or transthoracic via separate cannulas. The modes of support are either veno-venous or veno-arterial ECMO. In this article, the physiologic aspects of ECMO support are outlined.
  40,562 2,726 22
REVIEW ARTICLE
Cardiac pacing in left bundle branch/ bifascicular block patients
Madan Mohan Maddali
January-April 2010, 13(1):7-15
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.58828  PMID:20075529
The primary concern in patients with bifascicular block is the increased risk of progression to complete heart block. Further, an additional first-degree A-V block in patients with bifascicular block or LBBB might increase the risk of block progression. Anesthesia, monitoring and surgical techniques can induce conduction defects and bradyarrhythmias in patients with pre-existing bundle branch block. In the setting of an acute MI, several different types of conduction disturbance may become manifest and complete heart block occurs usually in patients with acute myocardial infarction more commonly if there is pre-existing or new bundle branch block. The question that arises is whether it is necessary to insert a temporary pacing catheter in patients with bifascicular block undergoing anesthesia. It is important that an anesthesiologist should be aware of the indications for temporary cardiac pacing as well as the current recommendations for permanent pacing in patients with chronic bifascicular and trifascicular block. This article also highlights the recent guidelines for temporary transvenous pacing in the setting of acute MI and the different pacing modalities that are available for an anesthesiologist.
  36,848 1,521 4
TUTORIAL
Cardiac output monitoring
Lailu Mathews, Kalyan RK Singh
January-June 2008, 11(1):56-68
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.38455  PMID:18182765
Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO) were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC) and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV). The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM), the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) breathing), transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.
  26,960 5,433 83
REVIEW ARTICLE
Transesophageal echocardiography: Instrumentation and system controls
Mahesh Prabhu, Dinesh Raju, Henning Pauli
April-June 2012, 15(2):144-155
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.95080  
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a semi-invasive, monitoring and diagnostic tool, which is used in the perioperative management of cardiac surgical and hemodynamically unstable patients. The low degree of invasiveness and the capacity to visualize and assimilate dynamic information that can change the course of the patient management is an important advantage of TEE. Although TEE is reliable, comprehensive, credible, and cost-effective, it must be performed by a trained echocardiographer who understands the indications and the potential complications of the procedure, and has the ability to achieve proper acquisition and interpretation of the echocardiographic data. Adequate knowledge of the physics of ultrasound and the TEE machine controls is imperative to optimize image quality, reduce artifacts, and prevent misinterpretation of diagnosis. Two-dimensional (2D) and Motion (M) mode imaging are used for obtaining anatomical information, while Doppler and Color Flow imaging are used for information on blood flow. 3D technology enables us to view the cardiac structures from different perspectives. Despite the recent advances of 3D TEE, a sharp, optimized 2D image is pivotal for the reconstruction. This article describes the relevant underlying physical principles of ultrasound and focuses on a systematic approach to instrumentation and use of controls in the practical use of transesophageal echocardiography.
  24,653 1,073 1
Anesthetic management of transcatheter aortic valve implantation
Annalisa Franco, Chiara Gerli, Laura Ruggeri, Fabrizio Monaco
January-March 2012, 15(1):54-63
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.91484  PMID:22234024
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an emergent technique for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. TAVI poses significant challenges about its management because of the procedure itself and the population who undergo the implantation. Two devices are currently available and marketed in Europe and several other technologies are being developed. The retrograde transfemoral approach is the most popular procedure; nevertheless, it may not be feasible in patients with significant aortic or ileo-femoral arterial disease. Alternatives include a transaxillary approach, transapical approach, open surgical access to the retroperitoneal iliac artery and the ascending aorta. A complementary approach using both devices and alternative routes tailored to the anatomy and the comorbidities of the single patient is a main component for the successful implementation of a TAVI program. Anesthetic strategies vary in different centers. Local anesthesia or general anesthesia are both valid alternatives and can be applied according to the patient's characteristics and procedural instances. General anesthesia offers many advantages, mainly regarding the possibility of an early diagnosis and treatment of possible complications through the use of transesophageal echocardiography. However, after the initial experiences, many groups began to employ, routinely, sedation plus local anesthesia for TAVI, and their procedural and periprocedural success demonstrates that it is feasible. TAVI is burdened with potential important complications: vascular injuries, arrhythmias, renal impairment, neurological complications, cardiac tamponade, prosthesis malpositioning and embolization and left main coronary artery occlusion. The aim of this work is to review the anesthetic management of TAVI based on the available literature.
  22,961 1,720 10
REVIEW ARTICLES
Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery
Suresh G Nair
September-December 2010, 13(3):196-205
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.69047  PMID:20826960
Once considered as nothing more than a nuisance after cardiac surgery, the importance of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) has been realized in the last decade, primarily because of the morbidity associated with the condition. Numerous causative factors have been described without any single factor being singled out as the cause of this complication. POAF has been associated with stroke, renal failure and congestive heart failure, although it is difficult to state whether POAF is directly responsible for these complications. Guidelines have been formulated for prevention of POAF. However, very few cardiothoracic centers follow any form of protocol to prevent POAF. Routine use of prophylaxis would subject all patients to the side effects of anti-arrhythmic drugs, while only a minority of the patients do actually develop this problem postoperatively. Withdrawal of beta blockers in the postoperative period has been implicated as one of the major causes of POAF. Amiodarone, calcium channel blockers and a variety of other pharmacological agents have been used for the prevention of POAF. Atrial pacing is a non-pharmacological measure which has gained popularity in the prevention of POAF. There is considerable controversy regarding whether rate control is superior to rhythm control in the treatment of established atrial fibrillation (AF). Amiodarone plays a central role in both rate control and rhythm control in postoperative AF. Newer drugs like dronedarone and ranazoline are likely to come into the market in the coming years.
  21,135 1,489 13
REVIEW ARTICLE
Anesthesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery
Thomas M Hemmerling, Gianmarco Romano, Nora Terrasini, Nicolas Noiseux
January-March 2013, 16(1):28-39
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.105367  PMID:23287083
The evolution of techniques and knowledge of beating heart surgery has led anesthesia toward the development of new procedures and innovations to promote patient safety and ensure high standards of care. Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery has shown to have some advantages compared to on-pump cardiac surgery, particularly the reduction of postoperative complications including systemic inflammation, myocardial injury, and cerebral injury. Minimally invasive surgery for single vessel OPCAB through a limited thoracotomy incision can offer the advantage of further reduction of complications. The anesthesiologist has to deal with different issues, including hemodynamic instability and myocardial ischemia during aorto-coronary bypass grafting. The anesthesiologist and surgeon should collaborate and plan the best perioperative strategy to provide optimal care and ensure a rapid and complete recovery. The use of high thoracic epidural analgesia and fast-track anesthesia offers particular benefits in beating heart surgery. The excellent analgesia, the ability to reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, and the good hemodynamic stability make high thoracic epidural analgesia an interesting technique. New scenarios are entering in cardiac anesthesia: ultra-fast-track anesthesia with extubation in the operating room and awake surgery tend to be less invasive, but can only be performed on selected patients.
  20,002 2,145 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Strain and strain rate: An emerging technology in the perioperative period
Vishwas Malik, Arun Subramaniam, Poonam Malhotra Kapoor
January-March 2016, 19(1):112-121
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.173026  PMID:26750682
Newer noninvasive parameters are being used for perioperative detection of myocardial ischaemia. TDI and global strain rate are some of these parameters. TDI signal is a modification of the routine Doppler flow signal. It is obtained by using thresholding and filtering algorithms that reject echoes originating from the blood pool (by-passing the high pass filter). Set-Up of the machine by activating the TDI function allows decreasing the system gain using a low pass filter and eliminates the signal produced by blood flow. Doppler shift obtained from myocardial tissue motion are of higher amplitudes (reflectivity 40 dB higher) and move about 10 times slower than blood (velocity range: 0.06 to 0.24 m/s). Speckle tracking echocardiography (tissue tracking, 2D strain) utilizes routine gray-scale 2D echo images to calculate myocardial strain. Interactions of ultrasound with myocardium result in reflection and scattering. These interactions generate a finely gray-shaded, speckled pattern (acoustic marker). This speckled pattern is unique for each myocardial region and relatively stable throughout the cardiac cycle. Spatial and temporal image processing of acoustic speckles in both 2D and 3D allows for the calculation of myocardial velocity, strain, and Strain rate.
  19,874 400 1
TUTORIALS
Perioperative hypotension and myocardial ischemia: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches
Amrik Singh, Joseph F Antognini
May-August 2011, 14(2):127-132
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.81569  PMID:21636935
Although perioperative hypotension is a common problem, its true incidence is largely unknown. There is evidence that postoperative outcome, including the incidence of myocardial adverse events, may be linked to the prolonged episodes of perioperative hypotension. Despite this, there are very few comprehensive resources available in the literature regarding diagnosis and management of these not so uncommon clinical occurrences, especially during non-cardiac surgery. Most anesthesia providers consider intraoperative hypotension to be caused by systemic vasodilatation and relative hypovolemia and so treat it empirically. The introduction of new monitoring devices including transesophageal echocardiography and arterial pressure waveform based stroke volume measurement have provided additional tools to narrow the differential diagnoses and initiate optimal treatment measures. Understanding the basic pathophysiology of hypotension and myocardial ischemia can further assist in providing goal directed management. This article serves as a comprehensive guide for anesthesiologists to diagnose and treat hypotension and myocardial ischemia. A summary of available techniques to monitor perioperative myocardial ischemia and their limitations are also discussed.
  17,293 1,516 9
REVIEW ARTICLES
Practice guidelines for perioperative transesophageal echocardiography: Recommendations of the Indian association of cardiovascular thoracic anesthesiologists
Kanchi Muralidhar, Deepak Tempe, Murali Chakravarthy, Naman Shastry, Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Prabhat Tewari, Shrinivas V Gadhinglajkar, Yatin Mehta
October-December 2013, 16(4):268-278
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.119175  PMID:24107693
Transoesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) is now an integral part of practice of cardiac anaesthesiology. Advances in instrumentation and the information that can be obtained from the TEE examination has proceeded at a breath-taking pace since the introduction of this technology in the early 1980s. Recognizing the importance of TEE in the management of surgical patients, the American Societies of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the Society of Cardiac Anesthesiologists, USA (SCA) published practice guidelines for the clinical application of perioperative TEE in 1996. On a similar pattern, Indian Association of Cardiac Anaesthesiologists (IACTA) has taken the task of putting forth guidelines for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to standardize practice across the country. This review assesses the risks and benefits of TEE for several indications or clinical scenarios. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses as well as current clinical practice guidelines published by various society practicing Cardiac Anaesthesia and cardiology . Based on the input received, it was determined that the most important parts of the TEE examination could be displayed in a set of 20 cross sectional imaging planes. These 20 cross sections would provide also the format for digital acquisition and storage of a comprehensive TEE examination. Because variability exists in the precise anatomic orientation between the heart and the esophagus in individual patients, an attempt was made to provide specific criteria based on identifiable anatomic landmarks to improve the reproducibility and consistency of image acquisition for each of the standard cross sections.
  17,097 1,440 1
TUTORIAL
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation - An anesthesiologist's perspective - Part II: Clinical and technical consideration
Sandeep Chauhan, S Subin
January-March 2012, 15(1):69-82
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.91485  PMID:22234027
Although the concept of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has remained unchanged, component technology has evolved considerably over the past three decades. Presently the clinical conditions requiring ECMO support have been updated with input from the outcome data of patient registries. Modern circuit configuration has become less cumbersome, safer, and more efficient. Technological advances now allow prolonged support with fewer complications compared to the past eras and facilitate transition to a single bedside caregiver model, similar to hemofiltration or ventricular-assist devices. The clinical considerations and indicators for placing the patient on ECMO, the various circuit configurations, clinical and technical issues, and management aspects are considered in this article.
  16,467 1,647 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sugammadex - A short review and clinical recommendations for the cardiac anesthesiologist
Thomas M Hemmerling, Cedrick Zaouter, Goetz Geldner, Dirk Nauheimer
September-December 2010, 13(3):206-216
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.69052  PMID:20826961
This review outlines the basic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of sugammadex for the cardiac anesthesiologist. It describes the different clinical scenarios when sugammadex can be used during cardiac surgery and gives clinical recommendations. Sugammadex is a unique reversal drug that binds a chemical complex with rocuronium and vecuronium, by which the neuromuscular blockade is quickly reversed. It is free of any clinical side-effects and doses of 2 mg/kg or more reliably reverse neuromuscular blockade within 5-15 min, depending on the depth of the neuromuscular blockade. Doses below 2 mg/kg should be avoided at any time because of the inherent risk of recurarization. Sugammadex should not replace good clinical practice - titration of neuromuscular blocking drugs to clinical needs and objective monitoring of neuromuscular blockade in the operating room or intensive care unit. Neuromuscular transmission should be determined in all patients before sugammadex is considered and 5 min after its administration to ensure that extubation is performed with normal neuromuscular transmission.
  16,809 1,300 16
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to anesthetic induction to attenuate hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing fast-track CABG
Ferdi Menda, Ozge Koner, Murat Sayin, Hatice Ture, Pinar Imer, Bora Aykac
January-April 2010, 13(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.58829  PMID:20075530
During induction of general anesthesia hypertension and tachycardia caused by tracheal intubation may lead to cardiac ischemia and arrhythmias. In this prospective, randomized study, dexmedetomidine has been used to attenuate the hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation with low dose fentanyl and etomidate in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization receiving beta blocker treatment. Thirty patients undergoing myocardial revascularization received in a double blind manner, either a saline placebo or a dexmedetomidine infusion (1 µg/kg) before the anesthesia induction. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored at baseline, after placebo or dexmedetomidine infusion, after induction of general anesthesia, one, three and five minutes after endotracheal intubation. In the dexmedetomidine (DEX) group systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP) and mean arterial pressures (MAP) were lower at all times in comparison to baseline values; in the placebo (PLA) group SAP, DAP and MAP decreased after the induction of general anesthesia and five minutes after the intubation compared to baseline values. This decrease was not significantly different between the groups. After the induction of general anesthesia, the drop in HR was higher in DEX group compared to PLA group. One minute after endotracheal intubation, HR significantly increased in PLA group while, it decreased in the DEX group. The incidence of tachycardia, hypotension and bradycardia was not different between the groups. The incidence of hypertension requiring treatment was significantly greater in the PLA group. It is concluded that dexmedetomidine can safely be used to attenuate the hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization receiving beta blockers.
  15,718 2,310 28
REVIEW ARTICLE
Pathophysiology of congenital heart diseases
Devyani Chowdhury
January-June 2007, 10(1):19-26
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.37920  PMID:17455404
  15,807 1,799 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Early goal-directed therapy in moderate to high-risk cardiac surgery patients
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Madhava Kakani, Ujjwal Chowdhury, Minati Choudhury, R Lakshmy, Usha Kiran
January-June 2008, 11(1):27-34
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.38446  PMID:18182756
Early goal-directed therapy is a term used to describe the guidance of intravenous fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by using cardiac output or similar parameters in the immediate post-cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery patients. Early recognition and therapy during this period may result in better outcome. In keeping with this aim in the cardiac surgery patients, we conducted the present study. The study included 30 patients of both sexes, with EuroSCORE ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, namely, control and early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) groups. All the subjects received standardized care; arterial pressure was monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour and frequent arterial blood gas analysis. In addition, cardiac index monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation using PreSep™ was used in patients in the EGTD group. Our aim was to maintain the cardiac index at 2.5-4.2 l/min/m 2 , stroke volume index 30-65 ml/beat/m 2 , systemic vascular resistance index 1500-2500 dynes/s/cm 5 /m 2 , oxygen delivery index 450-600 ml/min/m 2 , continuous central venous oximetry more than 70%, stroke volume variation less than 10%; in addition to the control group parameters such as central venous pressure 6-8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure 90-105 mmHg, normal arterial blood gas analysis values, pulse oximetry, hematocrit value above 30% and urine output more than 1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of intravenous fluids and doses of inotropic or vasodilator agents. Three patients were excluded from the study and the data of 27 patients analyzed. The extra volume used (330 ± 160 v/s 80 ± 80 ml, P = 0.043) number of adjustments of inotropic agents (3.4 ± 1.5 v/s 0.4 ± 0.7, P = 0.026) in the EGDT group were significant. The average duration of ventilation (13.8 ± 3.2 v/s 20.7 ± 7.1 h), days of use of inotropic agents (1.6 ± 0.9 v/s 3.8 ± 1.6 d), ICU stay (2.6 ± 0.9 v/s 4.9 ± 1.8 d) and hospital stay (5.6 ± 1.2 v/s 8.9 ± 2.1 d) were less in the EGDT group, compared to those in the control group. This study is inconclusive with regard to the beneficial aspects of the early goal-directed therapy in cardiac surgery patients, although a few benefits were observed.
  14,413 2,208 78
Modified Blalock Taussig shunt: Comparison between neonates, infants and older children
K Muralidhar
July-September 2014, 17(3):197-199
PMID:24994730
  15,926 691 -
E-ACA: ECHO TUTORIAL
Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic assessment of the mitral valve repair
Sanjayakumar C Banakal
January-April 2010, 13(1):79-85
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.58848  PMID:20075548
The use of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in assessment of the mitral valve repair is well established. It has significantly contributed to the excellent results of mitral valvuloplasty in the current era. This article reviews various two-dimensional echocardiographic planes to assess the mitral valve apparatus, mechanisms of mitral regurgitation, different surgical techniques of repair, complications, and their recognition using TEE.
  13,918 1,849 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Current status of bosentan for treatment of pulmonary hypertension
Shahzad G Raja, Gilles D Dreyfus
January-June 2008, 11(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.38443  PMID:18182753
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a debilitating disease associated with significant morbidity and a high mortality if left untreated. Over the past 5 years, there have been significant advances with regard to the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and classification of PAH. The availability of newer drugs has resulted in a radical change in the management of this disease with significant improvement in both the quality of life and mortality. One of the recent drugs is an orally active dual endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan; this drug has shown to improve the exercise capacity and survival in patients with PAH. This review article discusses the pharmacology of bosentan and summarises the current available evidence for the safety and efficacy of bosentan for the treatment of PAH.
  12,747 2,051 18
Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians
Thomas M Hemmerling, Gianluca Russo, David Bracco
July-December 2008, 11(2):80-90
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.41575  PMID:18603747
There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary) sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and immediate re-establishment of normal neuromuscular transmission at the end of surgery. Postoperative residual muscle paralysis is one of the major hurdles for immediate or early extubation after cardiac surgery. Nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs for cardiac surgery should therefore be easy to titrate, of rapid onset and short duration of action with a pathway of elimination independent from hepatic or renal dysfunction, and should equally not affect haemodynamic stability. The difference between repetitive bolus application and continuous infusion is outlined in this review, with the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of vecuronium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium. Kinemyography and acceleromyography are the most important currently used neuromuscular monitoring methods. Whereas monitoring at the adductor pollicis muscle is appropriate at the end of surgery, monitoring of the corrugator supercilii muscle better reflects neuromuscular blockade at more central, profound muscles, such as the diaphragm, larynx, or thoraco-abdominal muscles. In conclusion, cisatracurium or rocuronium is recommended for neuromuscular blockade in modern cardiac surgery.
  12,248 2,487 15
TUTORIAL
Adult cardiac transplantation: A review of perioperative management Part - I
Harish Ramakrishna, Dawn E Jaroszewski, Francisco A Arabia
January-June 2009, 12(1):71-78
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.45018  PMID:19136760
Cardiac allotransplantation has, over the years, become the established therapeutic modality for patients with end-stage heart failure. Significant advances in immunosuppressive therapy have dramatically improved the outcome of heart transplantation over the past four decades. This review will focus on the anaesthetic challenges involved in the perioperative management of these complex patients as well as some of the proposed alternatives to transplantation.
  12,147 2,465 12
REVIEW ARTICLE
Halogenated anaesthetics and cardiac protection in cardiac and non-cardiac anaesthesia
Giovanni Landoni, Elena Bignami, Fochi Oliviero, Alberto Zangrillo
January-June 2009, 12(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.45006  PMID:19136748
Volatile anaesthetic agents have direct protective properties against ischemic myocardial damage. The implementation of these properties during clinical anaesthesia can provide an additional tool in the treatment or prevention, or both, of ischemic cardiac dysfunction in the perioperative period. A recent meta-analysis showed that desflurane and sevoflurane reduce postoperative mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction following cardiac surgery, with significant advantages in terms of postoperative cardiac troponin release, need for inotrope support, time on mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and overall hospital stay. Multicentre, randomised clinical trials had previously demonstrated that the use of desflurane can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalisation following coronary artery bypass graft surgery either with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines recommend volatile anaesthetic agents during non-cardiac surgery for the maintenance of general anaesthesia in patients at risk for myocardial infarction. Nonetheless, e vidence in non-coronary surgical settings is contradictory and will be reviewed in this paper together with the mechanisms of cardiac protection by volatile agents.
  10,887 2,792 42
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pregnancy and non-valvular heart disease - Anesthetic considerations
Gaurab Maitra, Saikat Sengupta, Amitava Rudra, Saurabh Debnath
May-August 2010, 13(2):102-109
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.62933  PMID:20442539
Non-valvular heart disease is an important cause of cardiac disease in pregnancy and presents a unique challenge to the anesthesiologist during labor and delivery. A keen understanding of the underlying pathophysiology, in addition to the altered physiology of pregnancy, is the key to managing such patients. Disease-specific goals of management may help preserve the hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters within an acceptable limit and a successful conduct of labor and postpartum period
  10,755 1,916 3
CASE REPORTS
Anesthetic management of patient with myasthenia gravis and uncontrolled hyperthyroidism for thymectomy
Vishnu Datt, Deepak K Tempe, Baljit Singh, Akhlesh S Tomar, Amit Banerjee, Devesh Dutta, Hricha Bhandari
January-April 2010, 13(1):49-52
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.58835  PMID:20075536
The relationship between myasthenia gravis (MG) and other autoimmune disorders like hyperthyroidism is well known. It may manifest earlier, concurrently orafter the appearance of MG. The effect of treatment of hyperthyroidism on the control of MG is variable. There may be resolution or conversely, deterioration of the symptoms also. We present a patient who was diagnosed to be hyperthyroid two and half years before the appearance of myasthenic symptoms. Pharmacotherapy for three months neither improved the myasthenic symptoms nor the thyroid function tests. Thymectomy resulted in control of MG as well as hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, effective control of hyperthyroidism in the presence of MG may be difficult. The authors opine that careful peri-operative management of thymectomy is possible in a hyperthyroid state.
  11,578 1,008 1