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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2019
Volume 22 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 347-458

Online since Friday, October 4, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Effect of ischemic postconditioning during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A single-center cross-sectional study p. 347
Priyam Mukherjee, Mayank Jain
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_126_18  
Background and Objective: Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction has been shown to reduce mortality, yet it may also have deleterious effects, including myocardial necrosis and no-reflow. Postconditioning is known measure for cardioprotection from reperfusion injury in animal model. Postconditioning is known measure for cardioprotection from reperfusion injury in animal model and human studies have shown inconsistent results. Materials and Methods: From February 2013 through October 2014, at Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata Cardiology department, we randomized 43 patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were undergoing conventional primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (22 patients) and PCI with postconditioning by repeated transient balloon occlusion after establishment of flow (21 patients). Total creatine kinase-muscle/brain (CPK-MB) released within 72 h was compared as a surrogate marker of infarct size. Myocardial blush grade between two groups was also compared. Results: The area under curve of serum creatine kinase (CK) release during the 1st 72 h of reperfusion was significantly reduced (P = 0.0347) in the postconditioned group compared with the control group, averaging 9632 IU in postconditioned compared with 13493 IU in control group which represented 29% of reduction of infarct size. The peak of CPK-MB release was markedly lower in the postconditioned (290 ± 16.24 IU/L) than in the control (414.2 ± 51.34 IU/L) group (P ≤ 0.0001). Blush grading was also significantly improved in postconditioned group (P = 0.005). Mean ST-segment deviation at 48 h between cases and control groups was 0.87 ± 0.68 and 1.4 ± 0.94, respectively (P = 0.08). Conclusion: In patients with STEMI, postconditioning significantly improves blush grading and enzymatic infarct size reduction with a trend toward significant reduction of mean ST-segment deviation.
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The comparison of dexmedetomidine, esmolol, and combination of dexmedetomidine with esmolol for attenuation of sympathomimetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting p. 353
Dipali Singh, Sathyanarayan Jagannath, Shio Priye, A Syed Mudassar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_112_18  
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine, esmolol, and combination of both on control of sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in coronary artery disease patients. Material and Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study included 90 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups of 30 each: dexmedetomidine group (Group D) 1 μg/kg, esmolol group (Group E) 2 mg/kg, and group dexmedetomidine with esmolol (Group DE) 0.5 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine with 1 mg/kg of esmolol. Each drug was diluted with 0.9% normal saline to 20 ml volume and infused in 10 min before induction of anesthesia. Hemodynamic changes (heart rate [HR], arterial blood pressure, and pulmonary artery pressure) were compared at various time intervals as follows-baseline, after study drug, after induction, and 1, 3, and 5 min after intubation. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. Results: In Group DE, there was no significant increase in HR at all-time intervals, and the HR was stable compared to Group D and Group E. Blood pressure values were comparable in all groups except in Group E at 5 min. The pulmonary arterial pressures were statistically less in DE group except at 3 and 5 min. Conclusions: The combination of dexmedetomidine and esmolol group has beneficial effect on HR and pulmonary arterial pressures but has no additional advantage with respect to arterial blood pressure when compared with dexmedetomidine and esmolol groups in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting.
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Comparison between computerized tomography-guided bronchial width measurement versus conventional method for selection of adequate double lumen tube size p. 358
Praneeth Suvvari, Bhupesh Kumar, Manphool Singhal, Harkant Singh
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_117_18  
Background: Selection of adequate size double lumen tube (DLT) is complicated by marked inter-individual variability in morphology and dimensions of tracheobronchial tree. Computerized tomography (CT)-guided left bronchus width measurement has been used to predict adequate size DLT in European and Singapore population; however, no such data exist for Indian population who are racially different. We compared the effect of DLT size selection based on CT-guided bronchial width measurement to the conventional method of DLT selection on the adequacy of both lungs isolation and on the safety margin of right-sided DLT. Methods: Fifty-five adults scheduled to undergo thoracotomy were enrolled in this prospective observational study. An appropriate size left- or right-sided DLT with outer diameter 0.5–1 mm smaller than the CT-measured bronchial width was selected for the isolation of lungs. Adequacy of separation was checked using fiberoptic bronchoscope. The safety margin of selected right-sided DLT size was calculated from CT-measured right upper lobe bronchus width and diameter of right upper lobe ventilation slot of the DLT. Results: Adequate separation of lungs was achieved in 92.7% of studied population, 90.9% in males, and 95.4% in females. Among these, 54.9% patients required different sized DLT as compared to conventional method. Overall safety of margin of right-sided DLTs was comparable between two methods of DLT selection (median [IQR] 4.8 (3.5–6.8) vs. 6.59 (3.5–7.8), P = 0.317). DLT size with adequate isolation of lung correlated with height, tracheal width (TW) on chest X-ray, and age of the patients. A formula to calculate DLT size based on these variable was derived. Conclusion: CT-measured bronchial width predicts the appropriate DLT size better than conventional method. In the absence of CT scan facility, patient height, age, and chest X-ray TW may be used to predict DLT size with reasonable accuracy.
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Comparative evaluation of hemodynamic responses and ease of intubation with airtraq video laryngoscope versus macintosh laryngoscope in patients with ischemic heart disease p. 365
AV Varsha, Gladdy George, Rahul Pillai, Raj Sahajanandan
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_120_18  
Introduction: Hemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy can potentially precipitate ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. There are conflicting reports regarding the hemodynamic stress responses between the conventional Macintosh and video laryngoscopes. There is a paucity of studies regarding the same in cardiac surgical patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized control study to compare the hemodynamic responses and ease of intubation using Airtraq video laryngoscope and Macintosh laryngoscope in patients with ischemic heart disease. Results: Seventy patients were randomized into two groups. Baseline variables including age, weight, Mallampati score, and comorbidities were comparable between the two groups. There was statistically significant elevation in mean heart rate in the Macintosh group at 2nd-min (P = 0.02) and 3rd-min (P = 0.05) postintubation. Similarly, there was a significant increase in mean arterial pressure at 2nd (P = 0.06), 3rd (P = 0.03), and 4th (P = 0.03) in the Macintosh group. The time for laryngoscopy and Intubation Difficulty Scale was significantly better in the Airtraq group (P = 0.001 and 0.001). However, the median time to intubation was longer in the Airtraq group (13 s vs. 11 s, P = 0.05). Laryngoscopy view was better with Airtraq even in patients with Mallampati score 3 (ten patients). The incidence of trauma was same in both the groups. Conclusion: Airtraq provides the better hemodynamic stability and ease of intubation and may be considered superior to conventional Macintosh laryngoscope for intubation in patients with ischemic heart disease.
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Effect of low-dose dexamethasone on extra vascular lung water in patients following on-pump elective primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery p. 372
Madan Mohan Maddali, Niranjan Dilip Waje, Nishant Ram Arora, Sathiya Murthi Panchatcharam
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_122_18  
Background: The primary objective was to compare the effect of a low-dose dexamethasone as against a saline placebo on extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in patients undergoing elective primary coronary artery bypass surgery. The secondary endpoints were to assess the effect of dexamethasone on other volumetric parameters (pulmonary vascular permeability index, global end diastolic volume index, and intrathoracic blood volume index), Vasoactive Inotrope Scores, hemodynamic parameters and serum osmolality in both groups. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study performed at a single tertiary cardiac care center. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were randomized to receive either dexamethasone (steroid group, n = 10) or placebo (nonsteroid group, n = 10) twice before the institution of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). EVLWI and other volumetric parameters were obtained with the help of VolumeView™ Combo Kit connected to EV 1000 clinical platform at predetermined intervals. Hemodynamic parameters, vasoactive-inotropic Scores, hematocrit values were recorded at the predetermined time intervals. Baseline and 1st postoperative day serum osmolality values were also obtained. Results: The two groups were evenly matched in terms of demographic and CPB data. Intra- and inter-group comparison of the baseline EVLWI including other volumetric and hemodynamic parameters with those recorded at subsequent intervals revealed no statistical difference and was similar. Generalized estimating equation model was obtained to compare the changes between the groups over the entire study period which showed that on an average the changes between the steroid and nonsteroid group in terms of all volumetric parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusions: There were no beneficial effects of low-dose dexamethasone on EVLWI or other volumetric parameters in patients subjected to on-pump primary coronary bypass surgery. Hemodynamic parameters were also not affected. Probably, the advanced hemodynamic monitoring aided in optimal fluid management in the nonsteroidal group impacting EVLW accumulation.
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Proximal penholding method – A variant to enhance safety of ultrasoundguided central venous cannulation: A prospective pilot study p. 379
Devendra Gupta, Gaurav Misra, Rudrashish Haldar, Shashi Srivastava, Anil Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_124_18  
Aims: A significant incidence of Posterior Vessel Wall Puncture (PVWP) was reported during ultrasound guidance (USG) for internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization. We studied a new technique of USGIJV cannulation to minimize or avoid PVWP, thereby decreasing overall complication rate, irrespective of the operators' experience level. Materials and Methods: After ethical approval, a prospective study was conducted on adult patients of either gender between 18–65 years of age, belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I–III, undergoing general anesthesia and requiring USG-guided IJV cannulation. After induction of general anesthesia and intubation, USG-guided IJV cannulation was done using technique of “proximal pen-holding method” in patients placed in supine position with neck rotated in 15° rotation to the opposite side. The primary outcome was defined as success rate of USG-guided IJV cannulation and incidence of PVWP. The secondary outcome was the incidences of complications such as arterial puncture, adjacent tissue damage, and performer's ease of the procedure (0–10 scale; 0 denoting no ease and extreme difficulty and 10 denoting extreme ease and no difficulty). Results: In 135 patients, right IJV puncture, guidewire, and central line insertion were achieved in single attempt without any PVWP by nine operators which included two anesthesia consultants and seven senior registrars. No complications were reported and ease of procedure were rated as median (interquartile range) of 10 (10). Conclusions: The “proximal pen-holding method” for real-time USG-IJV cannulation helped in avoiding PVWP with lesser complication rate and greater performer's ease.
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High vs mid thoracic epidural analgesia – A comparative study on the ease of insertion and effects on pain, hemodynamics, and oxygenation in patients undergoing thoracotomies p. 383
K Durga Sudheshna, Ramachandran Gopinath, Syama Sundar Ayya, Prachi Kar, Ravinuthala V Kumar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_169_18  
Background: Thoracic epidural analgesia offers effective perioperative pain relief in patients undergoing thoracotomies apart from attenuating stress responses. It helps in fast tracking by facilitating early mobilization and improving respiratory function. Literature on high (T1–T2 level) thoracic segmental analgesia for thoracotomy is less. Aim: The aim of present study was to compare the ease of insertion, effect on pain relief in high (T1–T2 level) vs mid (T5–T6) approach of thoracic epidural. Setting and Design: The present study was a randomized control trial conducted at our institute. Materials and Methods: About 52 patients aged between 18–65 years scheduled for elective thoracotomies under general and thoracic epidural anesthesia were randomized into two groups. Intraoperatively ease of epidural insertion, extent of blockade, and postoperatively pain relief were assessed. Ropivacaine with fentanyl was used for epidural analgesia. Statistical Analysis: Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed by the Student's t test, Chi-square test, and non-parametric test whereever applicable. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We observed that high thoracic epidural anesthesia was easier to place (time taken 123.42 vs 303.08 s) P < 0.05, with less number of attempts (1.27 vs 1.92) P < 0.05. Extent of blockade, postoperative pain scores, rescue analgesia requirement, hemodynamics, and oxygenation were comparable. Conclusion: We conclude that high thoracic epidural is easier to insert, provides adequate pain relief, and stable hemodynamics with the advantage of patient comfort and safety.
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Adequacy of hemostatic resuscitation improves therapeutic efficacy of recombinant activated factor VII and reduces reexploration rate for bleeding in postoperative cardiac surgery patients with refractory hemorrhage p. 388
Joel T Feih, Janelle J Juul, Joseph R G Rinka, Lisa M Baumann Kreuziger, Paul S Pagel, Justin N Tawil
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_108_18  
Background: Excessive bleeding and surgical reexploration are common complications that increase the risk of multi-organ failure and prolonged hospitalization after cardiac surgery. Off-label use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is a recommended treatment for refractory bleeding. Objective: The objective of the study is to determine if the adequacy of hemostatic resuscitation enhances the efficacy of rFVIIa. Methods: This retrospective, observational, cohort study included patients who received rFVIIa for refractory postoperative bleeding after cardiac surgery. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of adequate coagulation resuscitation before rFVIIa administration, defined as international ratio (INR) ≤1.5, platelet count ≥100 K/mL, and fibrinogen ≥200 mg/dL. The failure of rFVIIa treatment was defined as surgical reexploration within 24 h, thoracostomy drainage >400 mL/h within 6 h or transfusion of additional blood products or another rFVIIa dose within 6 h after initial rFVIIa dose. Results: Of the 3833 patients, screened who underwent cardiothoracic surgery procedures, 58 patients received rFVIIa for refractory postoperative bleeding. Successful hemostasis with rFVIIa was more likely in patients who were adequately resuscitated compared with those who were not (20 [71.4%] vs. 10 [33.3%], respectively; P = 0.0046). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that patients who were adequately resuscitated before rFVIIa were less likely to fail treatment (odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval [0.04–0.62]; P = 0.007). Conclusions: The therapeutic efficacy of rFVIIa is dependent on the adequacy of hemostatic resuscitation; restoration of normal serum fibrinogen, INR, and platelet counts >100 K/mL may provide an adequate substrate for rFVIIa to be effective in managing refractory postoperative cardiac surgical bleeding.
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Is enneagram personality system able to predict perceived risk of heart disease and readiness to lifestyle modification? p. 394
Saeid Komasi, Ali Zakiei, Seyed Ramin Ghasemi, Nader Rajabi Gilan, Anis Veisi, Delaram Bagherirad, Mozhgan Saeidi
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_115_18  
Background: Studying personality traits and patterns is of significant importance in adopting healthy behaviors. Therefore, the current study investigates the relationship between Enneagram personality types and perceived risk of heart disease and readiness to lifestyle modification. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 190 noncardiac patients (82.3% female) in an outpatient clinic in western Iran were selected using a simple random sampling method to fill out standard questionnaires. The obtained data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. Results: The findings show that the performer personality (Type 3) can directly predict increasing readiness to lifestyle modification (P < 0.001). In contrast, there is a reverse significant relationship between the challenger personality (Type 8) and readiness to lifestyle modification (P = 0.019). Moreover, the helper personality (Type 6) is able to directly predict increasing the perceived risk of heart disease (P = 0.012). Conclusions: In the Enneagram system, unique personality types possess a unique risk perception and readiness to adopt healthy behaviors. The results of the current study can provide valuable information for healthy lifestyle programs professionals with regard to preventing cardiovascular diseases.
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Noninvasive ventilation during left atrial appendage closure under sedation: Preliminary experience with the Janus Mask p. 400
Alberto Zangrillo, Patrizio Mazzone, Alessandro Oriani, Marina Pieri, Giovanna Frau, Giuseppe D'Angelo, Chiara Sartini, Riccardo Capucci, Alessandro Belletti, Paolo Della Bella, Fabrizio Monaco
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_145_18  
Background: Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is indicated in subjects with atrial fibrillation who cannot receive oral anticoagulants. This procedure requires transesophageal echocardiography guidance and is usually performed under general anesthesia. The Janus Mask is a new device designed to allow upper endoscopic procedures during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Aims: This study aims to assess the possibility of performing LAAO under sedation and NIV. Setting: Cardiac electrophysiology laboratory. Design: Case–control study. Materials and Methods: Data from 11 subjects undergoing LAAO under sedation and NIV with the Janus Mask were retrospectively collected. Procedure duration, outcomes, and physicians' satisfaction were compared with those of 11 subjects who underwent LAAO under general anesthesia in the same period. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis and analysis of variance for between-groups comparison. Results: The 11 subjects treated with sedation experienced a good outcome, with a high degree of satisfaction from the medical team. An increase in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Janus group (45 [43–62] mmHg vs. 33 [30–35] mmHg in the general anesthesia group, P < 0.001) led to a transient pH decrease 45 min after the beginning of the procedure (7.30 [7.18–7.36] vs. 7.40 [7.39–7.46], P = 0.014). No differences in arterial partial pressure of oxygen, FiO2, and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The subjects' conditions at discharge from the recovery room were comparable. No difference in procedure duration was registered. Conclusions: LAAO procedure under sedation and NIV through the Janus Mask is safe and feasible. This strategy might represent a valuable alternative to manage such a compromised and fragile population.
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Application of student's t-test, analysis of variance, and covariance p. 407
Prabhaker Mishra, Uttam Singh, Chandra M Pandey, Priyadarshni Mishra, Gaurav Pandey
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_94_19  
Student's t test (t test), analysis of variance (ANOVA), and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) are statistical methods used in the testing of hypothesis for comparison of means between the groups. The Student's t test is used to compare the means between two groups, whereas ANOVA is used to compare the means among three or more groups. In ANOVA, first gets a common P value. A significant P value of the ANOVA test indicates for at least one pair, between which the mean difference was statistically significant. To identify that significant pair(s), we use multiple comparisons. In ANOVA, when using one categorical independent variable, it is called one-way ANOVA, whereas for two categorical independent variables, it is called two-way ANOVA. When using at least one covariate to adjust with dependent variable, ANOVA becomes ANCOVA. When the size of the sample is small, mean is very much affected by the outliers, so it is necessary to keep sufficient sample size while using these methods.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Preconditioning in cardiac anesthesia…… where are we? Highly accessed article p. 412
Ajita Suhrid Annachhatre, Suhrid R Annachhatre
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_116_18  
Preconditioning, a milestone concept in the cardiovascular sciences introduced 32 years back by Murry. This concept opened a new era in the field of organ protection. To start with extensive studies done on ischemic preconditioning for myocardial protection, ischemic preconditioning is an endogenous science of cellular kinetics. Several components in signal transduction cascade have been identified but still some mechanisms not yet revealed. Anesthetic preconditioning also contributed a lot for myocardial protection and concreted the concept of preconditioning. We, with an inquisitive brain meticulously persuing newer methods of cardioprotection. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a brilliant example of it. RIPC can be future of cardioprotection, clinical trials and studies proved the benefits but yet to conclude the superiority of RIPC over myocardial ischemic cardioprotection. This review is an attempt to reveal this extraordinary concept with its basic cellular kinetics, methods, and recent trends.
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Update on anesthesia management for explantation of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adult patients p. 422
Sau Yee Chow, Nian Chih Hwang
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_178_18  
The utilization of temporary circulatory support in the form of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased and its indications are expanding. Anesthesiologists may be involved in the care of these patients during the initiation of and weaning off from ECMO, surgical procedures with an ECMO in situ, and transfer of patients on ECMO between the operating theater and intensive care unit. This article addresses the anesthetic considerations and management for explant of veno-arterial ECMO in adults.
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INTERESTING IMAGES Top

Sudden, new-onset aortic regurgitation during off pump coronary bypass surgery p. 430
Monish S Raut, Vijay M Hanjoora, Murtaza A Chishti
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_110_18  
During off pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, it is common to observe mitral or tricuspid regurgitation due to heart displacement. But it's very unusual to notice new onset aortic regurgitation in OPCABG.
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“Left atrial myxoma - A tumor in transit” p. 432
US Dinesh Kumar, Murugesh Wali, Shyam Prasad Shetty, KR Sujay
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_232_18  
Cardiac myxoma is the most common type of primary cardiac neoplasm. Over 70% of all cardiac myxomas originate from the left atrium (LA) and 18% from the right atrium (RA). Most myxomas present with constitutional, embolic, and obstructive manifestations. We are presenting a case where a part of myxoma got embolized intra-operatively. Using trans-oesophageal echocardiography, we were able to diagnose and image the transit of the tumor from the left ventricle to the left atrium. We removed the embolized tumor from the left atrium and prevented a dreaded complication like stroke, mesenteric ischemia, renal infarct or limb ischemia, which would have resulted in increased morbidity or mortality of the patient.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Pseudo inappropriate shock: A technical dilemma p. 435
Pujan J Shah, Aditya Kapoor
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_109_18  
With liberal availability of high end cardiac implantable devices in recent era, we frequently encounter patients who are recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in our routine clinical practice. Despite improvements in shock detecting algorithms by various manufacturers, incidence of inappropriate shock therapy remains high, it is cause of distress to physicians and patients. Here we present an interesting case of inappropriate shock in one of patient.
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Ipsilateral foot drop after aortobifemoral bypass p. 437
Monish S Raut, Vijay Mohan Hanjoora, Akhil Govil, Paritosh Gupta
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_91_18  
Peripheral nerves can be injured by a direct result of the anesthetic technique of regional anesthesia or it can be contributed/compounded by poor perioperative positioning and padding, tourniquets, and the nature of surgery and diseases affecting the microvasculature of nerves. We present a case of perioperative peripheral nerve injuries which could not be explained by anesthesia technique nor surgery per se.
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Management of ventricular storm with thoracic epidural anesthesia p. 439
Shakuntala Basantwani, Shital R Shinde, Bharati Tendolkar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_98_18  
The incidence of recurrent ventricular arrhythmias is increasing these days. Ventricular electrical storm can be of three types as follows: monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), polymorphic VT, and ventricular fibrillation. The mechanism of ventricular storm is complex, and its management is quite a challenge for the clinicians due to its life-threatening consequences. We report a case of ventricular storm in whom all the conventional methods for the management of arrhythmias were ineffective, and the case is managed effectively with thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA). A 60-year-old male patient was admitted to recurrent ventricular arrhythmias. He received defibrillator shocks and other antiarrhythmic drugs, but he was not responding to the treatment. We managed to revert the ventricular arrhythmias to the sinus rhythm with TEA. Ventricular storm is a challenging complication, which can be managed effectively with timely diagnosis and effective management.
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Perioperative implications of Coronary–cameral fistula p. 442
Monish S Raut, Vijay Mohan Hanjoora, Akhil Govil
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_99_18  
Coronary–cameral fistulas (CCFs) are mostly congenital in origin and rarely acquired. Clinical symptoms are decided by the hemodynamic significance of the coronary fistula. Even in asymptomatic patients, it is essential to know about coronary CCF particularly if the patient is to undergo cardiac surgery with cardioplegic cardiac arrest. Incidental finding of coronary CCF should never be ignored. Intraoperative myocardial protection and methods used are significantly influenced by such fistula.
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Role of perioperative echocardiography in repair of incomplete shone complex: A case series p. 444
Alok Kumar, Imran Hussain Bhat, Bhupesh Kumar, KS T Shyam
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_80_18  
Multilevel obstruction of left-sided heart structures was originally characterized by Shone et al. The formulation of an appropriate operative strategy remains challenging and needs to be individualized for this complex subset of patients. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) not only helps in delineating spatial anatomy but also reveals associated anomalies that help in decision-making regarding operative strategies for these patients. Here, we discuss five such cases of Shone's anomaly presenting at varied age group with different associated anomaly in which intraoperative TEE played a pivotal role in the management.
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A rare cause of wheezing in a child with pulmonary atresia p. 449
Madan Mohan Maddali, Pranav Subbaraya Kandachar, Nishant Ram Arora, Francois Lacour-Gayet
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_92_18  
The determination of the exact cause for symptomatic airway obstruction in pediatric patients not responding to medication can be a clinical dilemma. Very rarely external vascular compressions can produce airway obstruction symptoms unresponsive to usual bronchodilator medications. The successful management of a child with pulmonary atresia and an innominate artery compression syndrome with respiratory compromise due to tracheal compression is described.
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Surgical resection of a cardiac lipoma of the right ventricle p. 452
Dimos Karangelis, John Palios, Dimitrios Tzertzemelis, Stella Economidou, Matthew Panagiotou
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_87_18  
Cardiac lipomas are rare, benign, encapsulated tumors which predominantly appear outside of the heart and less frequently inside the cardiac chambers. We describe a case of a right ventricular cardiac lipoma in a 72-year-old female patient who presented with palpitations. Surgical considerations, diagnostic modalities, and up-to-date literature are also presented and discussed.
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LETTERS TO EDITORS Top

How to avoid malpositioning of central venous catheter using ultrasound? p. 455
Abhijit S Nair, Vibhavari Naik, Omkar Upputuri, Basanth Kumar Rayani
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_101_18  
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Adenosine in cardiac catheterization suite: Complication re-visited! p. 456
Amruta Shringarpure, Pushkar Mahendra Desai, Sanjeeta R Umbarkar, Manjula S Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_129_18  
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Erratum: Quadricuspid aortic valve associated with aortic insufficiency contributors p. 458

DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.268602  
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