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April-June 2020
Volume 23 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 113-253

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EDITORIAL  

Opioid free cardiac anesthesia – A flash in the pan? Highly accessed article p. 113
Murali Chakravarthy
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_68_19  PMID:32275021
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Anesthesiologists and job satisfaction in cardiac cath lab: Do we need guidelines? Highly accessed article p. 116
Ajita Suhrid Annachhatre, Nagesh Janbure, Nagraju Gaddam, Digvijay Shinde, Suhrid Annachhatre
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_164_18  PMID:32275022
Cardiac cath lab procedures are developing in numbers, complexities and in demands with good outcomes. The complexicity of procedures and high risk patient factors require efficient cardiac anaesthesiologist's care. They need good infrastructure and anaesthesia facilities. These facilities may be available at Metrocity superspeciality centres, but small units at district levels may not have all these facilities. There are many issues existing which make cardiac anaesthesiologists to prefer to work only in cardiac operation theaters than cath lab. They don't get the job satisfaction in cath lab because of higher stress levels to overcome with the lacunaes in cath lab working. Aim: We hypothesize that cath lab in various centres are run by cardiac anaesthesiologists in majority. To analyze the infrastructure and working conditions of cath lab in perspective of anaesthesiologist, we conducted this survey. Setting and Design: Online survey among IACTA members, through email available through IACTA site. The link was https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/9FKZ3TV. Subjects and Methods: We contacted 500 IACTA members through email addresses available with us. 116 members replied to the online questionnaire done using SurveyMonkey software. Total 12 questions asked and answers analysed. The identity of responders is not disclosed by Survey monkey. Results: Results were analysed in for options in percentage wise by Surveymonkey software.we compiled all responses and categorized the suggestions by responders. Conclusion: Role of anaesthesiologist and anaesthesia facilities should be given important priority in cath lab units. Healthy attitude of governing members of cathlab as well as standard guidelines for recommendation of infrastructure of cath lab, monitoring and patient care is need of the hour!
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Prospective evaluation of the utility of CHA2DS2-VASc score in the prediction of postoperative atrial fibrillation after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery – An observational study Highly accessed article p. 122
Vogireddy R Krishna, Nitin Patil, Anitha Nileshwar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_161_18  PMID:32275023
Introduction: Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery is associated with evasion of complications of cardiac bypass. The incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) may also be reduced because of less ischemia and inflammation. Aim: Prospective evaluation of utility of CHA2DS2-VASc score in the prediction of POAF after OPCAB surgery. Methodology: In this prospective, observational study, 99 patients who underwent elective isolated OPCAB surgery were included. Patients with pacemaker in situ, receiving antiarrhythmic drugs preoperatively, and preexisting atrial fibrillation were excluded. A detailed history taking and physical examination were done preoperatively and the CHA2DS2-VASc scores were calculated for each patient. They received a standard anesthetic including midazolam, fentanyl, propofol, vecuronium, and isoflurane. The number of grafts, inotrope usage, and blood product transfusion in the perioperative period were noted. Patients were followed up for 5 days after surgery for development of new onset POAF requiring treatment. Results: About 20 of the 99 patients developed POAF. POAF occurred most commonly on postoperative day 2. They were older, more likely diabetic, had preoperative diastolic dysfunction, and received blood products perioperatively. POAF group had higher mean CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.6 ± 0.821 vs. 2.11 ± 1.35) and had longer hospital stay (16.85 ± 8.61 vs. 12.6 ± 4.05 days) than no POAF group. The cutoff for CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3, which showed 90% sensitivity, 77.22% specificity, 50% positive predictive value, and 96.63% negative predictive value. Conclusions: CHA2DS2-VASc score is useful in predicting POAF after OPCAB surgery. Higher the CHA2DS2-VASc score, greater is the possibility of development of POAF.
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A randomized control trial to compare thoracic epidural with intercostal block plus intravenous morphine infusion for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing elective thoracotomy Highly accessed article p. 127
Santhosh Vilvanathan, Balaji Kuppuswamy, Raj Sahajanandan
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_167_18  PMID:32275024
Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of Thoracic epidural with Intercostal block plus intravenous morphine infusion for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing elective thoracotomy. Methodology and Design: This study is designed as a prospective randomized clinical trial. Setting: Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India. Participants: Patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery through posterolateral thoracotomy. Intervention: In Group A (TEA) patients epidural catheter was inserted at T5-6 level before induction of GA and analgesia was activated using 0.25% of bupivacaine towards the end of the surgery, before chest closure and infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine with 2 mcg/ml of fentanyl was started. In Group B (ICN) patients, an intercostal blockade of the 5 intercostal spaces was performed by the surgeon just before chest closure using 0.25% bupivacaine and a continuous intravenous morphine infusion of 0.015-0.02 mg/kg/hr was started. Measurements: Assessment of resting and dynamic pain intensity using Numerical rating scale and sedation using Ramsay sedation scale was done and recorded at 1, 6,12,18,24 hours during the first postoperative day. The other parameters that were measured include side effects and the requirement of rescue analgesia. Results: Resting and Dynamic (NRS) pain scores were less in Group A (TEA) than Group B (ICN). In the first 12 hours, the differences in both the resting (P = 0.0505) and dynamic (P = 0.0307) pain scores were statistically significant. By the end of the first postoperative day, sedation scores were more or less similar in both groups. The incidence of side effects and requirement of rescue analgesia were found to be similar in both the groups. Conclusion: To summarize, though the results show a slightly better quality of analgesia with the thoracic epidural, the difference being clinically insignificant intercostal blockade could be considered as a valid alternative.
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Cardioprotective effects of propofol-dexmedetomidine in open-heart surgery: A prospective double-blind study Highly accessed article p. 134
Ahmed Said Elgebaly, Sameh Mohamad Fathy, Ayman Ahmed Sallam, Yaser Elbarbary
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_168_18  PMID:32275025
Background: Myocardial protection in cardiac surgeries is a must and requires multimodal approaches in perioperative period to decrease and prevent the increase of myocardial oxygen demand and consumption that lead to postoperative cardiac complications including myocardial ischemia, dysfunction, and heart failure. Study Design: Prospective, controlled, randomized, double-blinded study. Aims: This study aims to study the effect of propofol-dexmedetomidine continuous infusion cardioprotection during open-heart surgery in adult patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients of both sexes aged from 30 to 60 years old belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologists III or IV undergoing open-heart surgery were randomly divided into two equal groups: Group P (control group) received continuous infusion of propofol at a rate of 2 mg/kg/h and 50 cc 0.9% sodium chloride solution infused at a rate of 0.4 μg/kg/h (used as a placebo) and Group PD received continuous infusion of propofol at a rate of 2 mg/kg/h and dexmedetomidine 200 μg diluted in 50 cc 0.9% sodium chloride solution infused at a rate of 0.4 μg/kg/h. Infusion for all patients started immediately preoperative till skin closure. Hemodynamic measurements of heart rate (HR), invasive mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline before induction of anesthesia, immediately after intubation, at skin incision, at sternotomy and every 15 min in the 1st h then every 30 min during the prebypass period then every 15 min in the 1st h then every 30 min after weaning from CPB till the end of the surgery. Serum biomarkers; cardiac troponin (cTnI) and creatine kinase-myocardial bound (CK-MB) samples were measured basally (T1), 15 min after unclamping of the aorta (T2), immediate postoperative (T3), and 24 h postoperative (T4). Intraoperative data were also recorded including the number of coronary grafts, aortic cross-clamping duration, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), duration of surgery, and rhythm of reperfusion. Fentanyl requirement, extubation time, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also recorded for every case. Results: There was no statistically significant differences as regard to demographic data between the studied two groups. HR and blood pressure recorded was lower in the PD group than the control group, and this difference was noted to be statistically significant. Furthermore, the PD group showed lower levels of myocardial enzymes (cTnI and CK-MB), decreased total fentanyl requirement, earlier postoperative extubation, and shorter ICU stay than the P(control) group. Conclusion: The use of propofol-dexmedetomidine in CPB surgeries offers more cardioprotective effects than the use of propofol alone.
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Fast-track cardiac anaesthesia protocols: Is quality pushed to the edge? p. 142
Rajesh Bhavsar, Pia K Ryhammer, Jacob Greisen, Carl-Johan Jakobsen
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_204_18  PMID:32275026
Background: The quest for methods expediting rapid postoperative patient turnover has triggered implementation of various fast-track cardiac anaesthesia protocols. Using three different fast-track protocols in randomized controlled studies (RCT) conducted 2010-2016 we found minimal achievements in ventilation time together with actual and eligible length of stay in cardiac recovery unit. The comparable control group patients were evaluated in this retrospective post hoc analysis, for an association between above mentioned parameters and quality parameters, to assess whether the marginal gains have been at the expense of quality of recovery and patient comfort. Method: 90 control patients from three RCT with comparable demographic parameters and receiving standard department treatment were evaluated using time parameters and an objective/semi-objective Intensive Care Unit (ICU) score system (IDS score). Results: Ventilation time was statistical significant lower in latest study (C) than the early (A) and intermedium (B) studies (A=293, B=261, C=205 minutes; P=0.04). The IDS was lower at extubation and all time points in the early study compared to other studies (P < 0.001;). The average IDS in latest study were the double of previous studies at the end of observations, and marginally above the acceptable score for discharge. The postoperative morphine requirement A=15.0, B=10.0 and C=26.5 mg; P=0.002) was statistical significant higher in the latest study compared to previous studies. Conclusion: The implementation of strict fast-track protocols resulting in shorter ventilation time did not convert to earlier eligibility to discharge from the ICU. However, the quality of recovery appears challenged.
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Blood transfusion and lung surgeries in pediatric age group: A single center retrospective study p. 149
Ahmed S Elgebaly, Sameh M Fathy, Mona B Elmorad, Ayman A Sallam
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_210_18  PMID:32275027
Background: Blood transfusion is not without harm, and recent studies suggest association between transfusion and poor outcome in critically ill patients. Although it is prescribed for many reasons based on the firm belief that blood transfusion improves oxygen carrying capacity, it carries notable adverse hazards. Importantly, lung surgeries are counted as moderate to high-risk operations and take a significant risk of blood loss. Aim: This study aims to reveal the association between blood transfusion and poor clinical outcomes and characterize the epidemiology of blood transfusion after pediatric chest surgery. Settings and Design: Retrospective cohort study, done throughout 3 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 248 patients who underwent open thoracotomy and lung surgery and aged ≤18 years were classified according to the need of intraoperative or postoperative blood transfusion into two groups: Group I (non-transfused = 130) and Group II (transfused = 118). Statistical Analysis: SPSS v25 was used for analysis. Results: Transfusion probability ranged between 42.8% and 50% according to type of surgery. As regard to postoperative variables, there was no significant difference between both groups regarding the duration of analgesia, allergic reactions, need of re-operation and in-hospital mortality. However, transfused group showed significant increase in duration of antibiotic, persistent postoperative fever, time to remove chest drains, ICU stays, hospital stay and pneumonia. Incidence of pneumonia had a relative risk 1.82 with transfused compared to non-transfused group. Conclusion: Transfusion group in pediatrics undergoing lung surgeries in our study was more prone to adverse outcomes such as pneumonia, delayed time to remove chest drains, prolonged ICU stay, and hospital stay.
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High thoracic epidural decreases perioperative myocardial ischemia and improves left ventricle function in aortic valve replacement alone or in addition to cabg surgery even with increased left ventricle mass index p. 154
Ahmed S Elgebaly, Sameh M Fathy, Yaser Elbarbary, Ayman A Sallam
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_203_18  PMID:32275028
Introduction: High thoracic epidural (HTE) may reduce perioperative tachyarrhythmias, respiratory complications and myocardial ischemia (MI) and it may increase coronary perfusion and myocardial oxygen balance through sympatholysis and pain control. The aim of this study is to investigate the benefit of HTE in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) alone or in addition to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods: This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted on 80 patients (40 with increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and 40 with normal LVMI) who were equally randomised (n = 40) to receive either GA with HTE (HTE group) or GA alone (GA group). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and the incidence of ischemic ECG changes were recorded. LV functions (preoperative and postoperative by transthoracic echocardiography and intraoperative by transoesophageal echocardiography) were measured preoperative, intraoperative and till 48 H postoperative. Results: There was no significant difference in the baseline values of all measurements. HR and MAP were lower, and LV functions were improved in HTE group intraoperatively and postoperatively. Ischemic ECG changes were significantly lower in HTE group; with 42.9% intraoperative risk reduction (95% CI: 0.195-0.943) and 46.6% postoperative risk reduction (95% CI 0.227-0.952) as compared to GA group. The risk of ischemia was significantly higher in patients with increased LVMI in GA group (2.25 times compared to normal LVMI patients with 95% CI: 1.195-4.236), but it wasn't increased in HTE group. LV functions were significantly improved from the induction to 48 H postoperative in HTE group as compared to GA group. Conclusion: HTE reduced the incidence of MI and improved the LV function, even with increased LVM, in patients undergoing AVR alone or in addition to CABG.
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An analysis of prior experience influencing quality of pulmonary artery catheter placement in residents p. 161
Hirofumi Hamaba, Yuka Miyata, Tsutomu Wada, Tomohiko Hayasaka, Yukio Hayashi
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_220_18  PMID:32275029
Background: Prior experience may be important for successful placement of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). However, there is no report about the minimum number of the placement to reach acceptable technique for the catheter placement during residency. Aims: This study was designed to examine quality of the catheter placement and to assess the effect of prior experience. Setting and Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study. Methods: This study included eight residents and one experienced staff in our hospital. We prospectively examined the performance of placement of a PAC in eight residents for the first 2 months of their training period and one staff for previous 2 years. We examined the time required for the catheter placement and probability of ventricular arrhythmias during the placement. Each resident and the staff reported approximate number of past experience of the catheter placement according to the self-statement. In addition, we continued to examine the placement of a PAC in one resident with zero experience to show his improvement. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney test, or Fisher's exact test as appropriate and Benjamini and Hochberg method was used for multiple comparisons. Results: The catheter placement time and probability of the ventricular arrhythmias of two residents with zero experience of the placement were significantly larger than those of the staff. On the other hand, the placement quality of the other residents who experienced at least 20 PAC placements was not significantly different from that of the staff. The placement quality of one resident with zero experience became comparable with that of the staff after 20 placements. Conclusion: Our data suggested that about 20 catheter placements may be required to reach acceptable technical level for the PAC placement.
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Comparison of pectoral Nerve (PECS1) block with combined PECS1 and transversus thoracis muscle (TTM) block in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device insertion – A pilot study p. 165
Thanigai Arasu, S Ragavendran, PS Nagaraja, Naveen G Singh, Manjunatha N Vikram, Vikram Somashekhar Basappanavar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_254_18  PMID:32275033
Background: Pectoral nerve (PECS1) block has been used for patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) insertions, however, PECS1 block alone may lead to inadequate analgesia during tunneling and pocket creation because of the highly innervated chest wall. Transversus thoracis muscle plane (TTM) block targeting the anterior branches of T2-T6 intercostal nerves can be effectively used in combination with PECS1 for patients undergoing CIED insertion. The present study hypothesized that combined PECS1 and TTM blocks would provide effective analgesia for patients undergoing CIED insertion compared to PECS1 block alone. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients between the age group of 18–85 years undergoing CIED insertion were enrolled in the study. A prospective, randomized, comparative, pilot study was conducted. A total of 30 patients were enrolled, who were randomized to either Group P: PECS1 block (n = 15) or Group PT: PECS1 and TTM blocks (n = 15). The intraoperative requirement of midazolam and local anesthetic and level of sedation by Ramsay sedation score were noted. The pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) at rest and during a cough or deep breathing at 0 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h after the procedure. Results: VAS scores at rest were significantly lower in group PT at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postprocedure, and during cough at 0, 6, and 12 h after the procedure (P < 0.05). At 24 h, VAS scores were comparable between both groups. Intraoperative midazolam consumption was higher in group P compared to group PT (P= 0.002). Fourteen patients in group P received local anesthetic supplementation in comparison to only one patient in group PT (P = 0.0001). Thirteen patients in group P received the first rescue analgesia in comparison to three patients in group PT (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Combined PECS1 and TTM blocks provide superior analgesia, reduced net consumption of local anesthetic, sedative agents, and rescue analgesics compared to PECS1 block alone in patients undergoing CIED insertion.
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Combined effect of left stellate ganglion blockade and topical administration of papaverine on left internal thoracic artery blood flow in patients undergoing coronary revascularization p. 170
Roshith Chandran, Rupa Sreedhar, Shrinivas Gadhinglajkar, Prashantkumar Dash, Jayakumar Karunakaran, Vivek Pillai
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_144_18  PMID:32275031
Background: Left stellate ganglion blockade (LSGB) may have additive effect to topical administration of papaverine on prevention of vasospasm of left internal thoracic artery (LITA). Aims: This study aims to compare LITA blood flow with topical application of papaverine alone or in combination with LSGB. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Design: Prospective randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients operated for coronary revascularization were randomly and equally allocated into two groups. In control Group-C, papaverine was applied topically during the dissection of LITA. In Group-S, the additional LSGB was performed. Blood flow was measured from cut end of the LITA for 15 s. Primary objectives of the evaluation were to observe differences in the LITA blood flow. Observing incidence of radial-femoral arterial pressure difference after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was secondary objective. Statistical Analysis: Student's unpaired t-test and Fisher's exact test to find out a significant difference between the groups. Results: LITA flow in Group-S was insignificantly more (49.28 ± 7.88 ml/min) than Group-C (47.12 ± 7.24 ml/min), (P = 0.15). Radio-femoral arterial pressure difference remained low for 40 min after termination of CPB in the Group-S compared to the Group-C (−0.99 ± 1.85 vs. −1.92 ± 2.26). Conclusion: Combining LSGB with papaverine does not increase the LITA blood flow compared to when the papaverine is used alone. However, ganglion blockade reduces radial-femoral arterial pressure difference after CPB. Blockade can be achieved successfully under the ultrasound guidance without any complications.
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A comparative study of the analgesic effects of intravenous ketorolac, paracetamol, and morphine in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery: A double-blind, active-controlled, randomized clinical trial p. 177
Farzaneh Dastan, Zahra M Langari, Jamshid Salamzadeh, Ali Khalili, Sahar Aqajani, Alireza Jahangirifard
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_239_18  PMID:32275032
Background: Opioids are traditionally used as the drug of choice for the management of postoperative pain. However, their use is limited in patients undergoing Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), due to their side effects, such as respiratory depression, nausea, and vomiting. Aim: In this double-blind active-controlled randomized study, we have compared the analgesic effects of ketorolac and paracetamol to morphine. Methods: Patients were randomly chosen from a pool of candidates who were undergoing VATS and were divided into three groups. During the first 24 h postsurgery, patients in the control group received a cumulative dose of morphine 20 mg, while patients in two treatment groups received ketorolac 120 mg and paracetamol 4 g in total. Doses were administered as bolus immediately after surgery and infusion during the first 24 h. Patients' pain severity was evaluated by visual analogue scale rating (VAS) at rest and during coughing episodes. Results: The average pain score at recovery time was 2.29 ± 2.13 and 2.26 ± 2.16 for ketorolac and paracetamol, respectively, and it was significantly lower than the morphine group with an average pain score of 3.87 (P = 0.003). Additionally, the VAS score during cough episodes was significantly higher in the control group throughout the study period compared to study groups. Comparison of mean morphine dose utilized as liberation analgesic (in case of patients had VAS >3) between three groups was not significantly different (P = 0.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the non-inferiority of ketorolac and paracetamol to morphine in controlling post-VATS pain without causing any significant side effects. We also show that ketorolac and paracetamol are superior to morphine in controlling pain during 2 h postsurgery.
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Comparison of upper thoracic epidural analgesia versus low thoracic epidural analgesia in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft for perioperative pain management and fast tracking p. 183
Omshubham Gangadhar Asai, V Prabhakar, N Manjunatha
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_254_18  PMID:32275033
Background: Upper thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) is compared with lower thoracic epidural analgesia for the perioperative pain management and fast tracking in patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) surgery for the intraoperative hemodynamic, quality of analgesia, incentive spirometry, time to awakening & extubation and intensive care unit (ICU) duration. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized comparative clinical study was conducted with total of 60 patients randomized to either Group U: Upper TEA (n = 30) or Group L: Lower TEA (n = 30). Visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded in both the groups during rest and deep breathing at the various time intervals postextubation. Both the groups were also compared for intraoperative hemodynamics, incentive spirometry, time to awakening, and extubation and ICU duration. Statistical analysis was performed using the independent Student's t-test. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Postextubation VAS score at rest and deep breathing at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h were statistically significant in both groups (P ≤ 0.05). Incentive spirometry, time to awakening and extubation and duration of ICU stay were also statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion: Lower thoracic epidural was better than upper thoracic epidural in perioperative pain management and fast tracking in OPCAB surgery.
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Comparison of continuous cardiac output monitoring derived from regional impedance cardiography with continuous thermodilution technique in cardiac surgical patients p. 189
G Bhavya, PS Nagaraja, Naveen G Singh, S Ragavendran, N Sathish, N Manjunath, K Ashok Kumar, Vinayak B Nayak
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_1_19  PMID:32275034
Background: Cardiac output (CO) assessment is a corner stone in advanced haemodynamic management, especially in critical ill patients. The present study was conducted to validate cardiac index and cardiac output by NICaS™ with the thermodilution technique using pulmonary artery catheter in post-operative cardiac surgical patients. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital. 23 adult patients in the age range of 18-65 years who had undergone for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were included in the study. Results: Spearman's correlation coefficient of cardiac index between continuous Thermodilution (cTD) and Non-Invasive Cardiac System (NICaS™) showed a good correlation (r = 0.765, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.82, P < 0.0001). There was a good correlation between cTD and NICaS™ for cardiac output (r = 0.759, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 0.81, P < 0.0001), Bland-Altman plot for cardiac index between cTD and NICaS™ showed a mean bias of −0.66 ± 0.6919 with limits of agreement being −2.02 to 0.6936. Bland-Altman plot for cardiac output between cTD and NICaS™ showed a mean bias of −1.0386 ± 1.17 with limits of agreement being −3.34 to + 1.26. Percentage error for cardiac index and cardiac output were 64.78% and 64% respectively. Polar plot analysis showed an angular bias of 6.32° with radial limits of agreement being −8.114° to 20.75° for cardiac index and angular bias of 5.6682° with radial limits of agreement being −9.1422° to 20.4784° for cardiac output. Conclusion: NICaS™ demonstrated a good trending ability for both CI and CO. However, NICaS™ derived parameters are not interchangeable with the values derived from continuous thermodilution technique.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Antifibrinolytics and cardiac surgery: The past, the present, and the future p. 193
Naresh K Aggarwal, Arun Subramanian
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_205_18  PMID:32275035
Cardiac surgery is usually associated with significant blood loss, which often necessitates blood transfusion. In order to decrease the risks associated with the latter, pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological strategies have been used to reduce blood loss. Among the pharmacological approaches, antifibrinolytic drugs are the mainstay. Aprotinin, which was the first ubiquitously used drug, fell into disrepute only to re-emerge after much debate. The decline of aprotinin paved the way for the lysine analogs. However, we must be aware with the side effects of these drugs as well as the dose modification required in special situations. Nonsaccharide glycosaminoglycans have been under investigation to overcome the drawbacks of the lysine analogs. It remains to be seen whether these drugs can replace the traditional antifibrinolytics.
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Pain relief following sternotomy in conventional cardiac surgery: A review of non neuraxial regional nerve blocks p. 200
Prachi Kar, Gopinath Ramachandran
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_241_18  PMID:32275036
Acute post-operative pain following sternotomy in cardiac surgery should be adequately managed so as to avoid adverse hemodynamic consequences and pulmonary complications. In the era of fast tracking, adequate and efficient technique of post-operative analgesia enables early extubation, mobilization and discharge from intensive care unit. Due to increasing expertise in ultrasound guided blocks there is a recent surge in trial of bilateral nerve blocks for pain relief following sternotomy. The aim of this article was to review non-neuraxial regional blocks for analgesia following sternotomy in cardiac surgery. Due to the paucity of similar studies and heterogeneity, the assessment of bias, systematic review or pooled analysis/meta-analysis was not feasible. A total of 17 articles were found to be directly related to the performance of non-neuraxial regional nerve blocks across all study designs. Due to scarcity of literature, comments cannot be made on the superiority of these blocks over each other. However, most of the reviewed techniques were found to be equally efficacious or better than conventional and established techniques.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Anaesthetic management of myasthenia gravis in coronary artery bypass grafting p. 209
Vinayak Vanjari, Marc O Maybauer
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_176_18  PMID:32275037
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction causing weakness and fatigability of muscles. Careful perioperative management is required because of the unpredictable susceptibility to muscle relaxants. In this case report, we describe the successful management of a MG patient for normothermic coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with titrated doses of rocuronium without prolonged postoperative ventilation. We chose rocuronium because full and rapid recovery of neuromuscular blockade is possible with sugammadex. We conclude that using rocuronium is safe during general anaesthesia in MG patients undergoing on-pump CABG when combined with continuous neuromuscular monitoring and careful perioperative management.
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Closure of an iatrogenic ventricular septal defect using a hybrid approach and echocardiographic guidance p. 212
Christopher Parsons, Chen B Zhao, Jiapeng Huang
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_150_18  PMID:32275038
Treatment of postsurgical iatrogenic ventricular septal defects (VSDs) remains a challenge. Surgical closure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A peripheral accessed percutaneous approach is faced with difficulties of gaining adequate access and complex positioning in a beating heart. We report a case of using a hybrid approach to treat iatrogenic VSD with surgical right atriotomy and delivery of an Amplatzer system under direct visualization and transesophageal echocardiography guidance.
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Cecal bascule after cardiac surgery: A case report p. 216
Angela M Johnson, Soon Park, Francis T Lytle
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_171_18  PMID:32275039
Cecal bascule is a form of volvulus resulting from upward and anterior cecal folding, and accounts for 0.01% of adult large bowel obstructions. With a competent ileocecal valve, cecal bascule may progress to closed loop obstruction, ischemia, gangrene, or perforation. Failure to treat cecal bascule has a mortality of 50%. Nonoperative management includes nasogastric and colonoscopic decompression, with a 95% failure rate. The gold standard is right hemicolectomy with a near nonexistent recurrence rate. Severe gastrointestinal complications following cardiothoracic surgery may lead to increased morbidity, length of stay, and mortality. Here, we present the first reported case of cecal bascule following cardiac surgery.
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Large venous hemangioma of brachial plexus p. 218
Hosseinali Abdolrazaghi, Azade Riyahi, Masoud Rezagholi zamenjany
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_73_18  PMID:32275040
In this report, we present a rare case of a vascular brachial plexus tumor. The patient was a 29-year-old woman with the chief complaint of progressive enlargement of a soft tissue mass in the left upper extremity, without any pain or sensory, motor, or neurologic deficits. The soft tissue mass had presented in the left deltopectoral groove eight years ago. However, the patient had not been evaluated in the past eight years and was only recently admitted to a referral hospital. After complete examination, she underwent surgery for a nerve sheath tumor of the brachial plexus.
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Erector spinae plane block using clonidine as an adjuvant for excision of chest wall tumor in a pediatric patient p. 221
Anju Gupta, Nishkarsh Gupta, Arindam Choudhury, Nidhi Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_188_18  PMID:32275041
Erector spinae plane block has been described to manage post-thoracotomy pain. It is a simple block and shown to be provide effective analgesia. In single shot blocks opioid supplementation may be required to manage pain after the effect of local anesthetic wears off. In this case, we describe a case of chest wall tumor excision in a child who received clonidine in addition to local anesthetic for the erector spinae plane block. This provided long lasting and effective postoperative analgesia and may be considered to prolong the analgesia achieved with erector spinae plane block.
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Ultrasound-guided serratus plane block combined with intercostal block for a high-risk patient with pericardial tamponade: A case report p. 224
Ayhan Şahin, Onur Baran, lker Yıldırım, Cavidan Arar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_231_18  PMID:32275042
Anesthetic management of patients with pericardial tamponade is challenging. A 65-year-old man diagnosed with small-cell lung carcinoma and bilateral malignant pleural effusion in the lungs and pericardial effusion was scheduled for pericardial-window-opening surgery. The severely compromised lung function of the patient led to an anesthetic plan of ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block combined with an intercostal block. Although serratus plane block was initially developed for postoperative analgesia, we have shown here that it can be used under deep sedation in combination with an intercostal block for anesthesia for surgeries involving the hemithorax; the block may be promising in high-risk cases.
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Airway management in a child with anterior mediastinal mass complicated by cardiac tamponade - Role of spontaneous ventilation p. 227
Priya Rudingwa, Sakthirajan Panneerselvam, Meenupriya Arasu, Thirumurugan Arikrishnan
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_244_18  PMID:32275043
Induction of general anesthesia in patients with mediastinal mass can lead to life threatening respiratory and cardiovascular complications during induction, maintenance and emergence. The inability of pediatric patient to cooperate for local anesthesia further complicates the management of such cases. Here we report the management of a child with anterior mediastinal mass causing airway compression and massive pericardial effusion posted for right pleuropericardial window.
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Congenital giant right coronary artery p. 230
Monish S Raut, Vijay M Hanjoora, Aseem Ranjan Srivastava, Shyamveer Singh Khangarot, Aman Jyoti, Viresh Mahajan, Nidhi Rawal
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_181_18  PMID:32275044
Giant coronary artery aneurysms are exceptionally uncommon with an incidence of 0.02%. The natural history and prognosis of giant coronary artery aneurysm are still not well known.
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Pulmonary venous baffle obstruction following senning procedure - Role of transesophageal echocardiography p. 232
Krishna P Gourav, Sunder Negi, Srinath Damodaran, Vamsidhar Amburu
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_195_18  PMID:32275045
We present a case of D-transposition of great arteries with atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus electively posted for Senning's operation at 10 months of age. The patient developed signs of lung congestion immediately after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass. A stenosis in the pulmonary venous baffle was detected in transesophageal echocardiography showing a peak gradient of 10 mmHg and a mean gradient of 5 mmHg. Hence, revision of baffle was planned. The stenotic area was excised and augmented with homologous pericardium. Post-correction, lung compliance improved and the peak and mean gradient decreased to 3 and 1 mm Hg, respectively. The patient was extubated in the intensive care unit after 36 h and shifted to ward after 5 days with stable hemodynamics.
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Epicardial cardioverter defibrillator implantation due to post-fontan ventricular tachycardia p. 235
Nikolaos A Papakonstantinou, Vasileios Patris, Ilias Samiotis, Michalis Koutouzis, Giasemi Koutouzi, Mihalis Argiriou
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_234_18  PMID:32275046
Long-term survival of patients submitted to a Fontan procedure is reduced because of arrhythmias. Late post-Fontan ventricular tachycardia is extremely rare, but it can be fatal. Consequently, the implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator may be required. The implantation of such a device after a Fontan operation can be rather difficult due to anatomic reasons that exclude transvenous approach. Epicardial ICD implantation is a treatment option for these patients. Transatrial approach, shock ICD coils placement in azygos vein or directly in the pericardium are possible alternatives. We hereby present a successful epicardial implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in a post-Fontan 39-year-old man suffering from ventricular tachycardia.
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An intriguing case of post-operative respiratory failure from an occult diaphragmatic hernia- be aware of the masquerader p. 237
Biplob Borthakur, Vijay M Hanjoora, Viresh Mahajan, Aseem R Srivastava, Aman Jyoti, Monish Raut, Anup Nawal
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_227_18  PMID:32275047
Though respiratory complications after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease are common, and malformations of the diaphragm can be expected in these patients, the presence of an occult diaphragmatic defect unrecognisible preoperatively and complicating the post operative course is very rare and need a high index of suspicion for diagnosis in the setting of post operative respiratory failure. We present here a case of post operative respiratory failure from a delayed presenting diaphragmatic hernia in a 2-month-old boy who underwent corrective surgery for Taussig bing anomaly and hypoplastic aortic arch. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect and reduction of the bowel loops to the abdomen resulted in rapid weaning from ventilation and recovery with subsequent discharge from hospital.
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Spontaneous bag mask ventilation for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass via mid-sternotomy in patients with severe tracheal stenosis: A series of three patients p. 241
Sanjula Virmani, Vishnu Datt, Deepak K Tempe, Harpreet S Minhas, Ravi Meher, Aastha D Goswami, Shalini Sharma, Indira Malik
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_246_18  PMID:32275048
In patients with critical tracheal stenosis, particularly involving the lower part of trachea, a highly experienced team of anesthesiologists to tackle the difficulties of securing and maintaining the ventilation, cardiac surgeon who can swiftly establish cardiopulmonary bypass, an experienced surgeon for tracheal reconstruction are a prerequisite for managing these highly complex cases. The present paper describes three patients suffering from severe tracheal narrowing wherein spontaneous bag-mask ventilation was used for establishing cardiopulmonary bypass via mid-sternotomy as a rare life-saving procedure for urgent tracheal reconstructive surgery. A highly experienced team of anesthesiologists to tackle the difficulties of securing and maintaining the ventilation, cardiac surgeon who can swiftly establish CPB, and an experienced surgeon for tracheal reconstruction are a prerequisite for managing these highly complex cases. The present paper describes three patients suffering from severe tracheal narrowing wherein spontaneous bag-mask ventilation was used for establishing CPB via mid-sternotomy as a rare life-saving procedure for urgent tracheal reconstructive surgery.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Abnormal mitral valve apparatus is not an indication for mitral valve replacement in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy p. 246
Praveen Kerala Varma, Hisham Ahamed
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_160_18  PMID:32275049
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Correction of a malpositioned central venous catheter using point-of-care transthoracic echocardiography p. 247
Indranil Biswas, Imran Hussain Bhat, Sunder Lal Negi
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_141_18  PMID:32275050
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Preoperative bronchoscopy before lung isolation: Look before you leap p. 249
Jeson R Doctor, Sohan Lal Solanki, Savi J Kapila
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_154_18  PMID:32275051
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Entrapped tracheal tube, an unusual cause of extubation failure following tracheal resection and reconstruction p. 250
Patil Pranit, Panneerselvam Sakthirajan, Rudingwa Priya
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_198_18  PMID:32275052
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Successful anesthetic management of a massive thoracoabdominal impalement injury p. 252
Deepak B Bhushan, Preeti T Gupta, Gajendragadkar A Supriya, Manju T Butani
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_152_18  PMID:32275053
We describe the management, focusing on the anesthetic preparedness, of a 44-year-old man who presented with impalement of a 1 m long serrated rod through the right supraclavicular fossa extending up to the right iliac fossa, along with rib fractures and laceration of the liver and diaphragm.
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