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July-September 2019
Volume 22 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 239-346

Online since Thursday, July 4, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Chronic postthoracotomy pain in transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement p. 239
Brian R Gebhardt, Ankit Jain, Sarah A Basaham, Farhad Zahedi, Stefan Ianchulev, Larry H Brinckerhoff, John G Augoustides, Prakash A Patel, Andrea Tsai, Frederick C Cobey
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_77_18  PMID:31274483
Objective: Chronic postthoracotomy pain (CPTP) is a persistent, occasionally debilitating pain lasting >2 months following thoracic surgery. This study investigates for the first time the prevalence and clinical impact of CPTP in patients who have undergone a transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TA-TAVR). Design: This was a single-institution, prospective observational survey and a retrospective chart review. Setting: The study was conducted in the University Hospital. Participants: Patients. Materials and Methods: A survey of 131 participants with either a previous TA TAVR or transfemoral (TF) TAVR procedure was completed. A telephone interview was conducted at least 2 months following TAVR; participants were asked to describe their pain using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Measurements and Main Results: Odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the proportions of questionnaire responders reporting “sensory” descriptors in the TA-TAVR versus the TF-TAVR groups. Results were then compared to individual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ12) scores and 5-min walk test (5MWT) distances. A total of 119 participants were reviewed (63 TF, 56 TA). Among TA-TAVR questionnaire responders (n = 16), CPTP was found in 64.3% of participants for an average duration of 20.5-month postprocedure (OR = 10, [confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.91–52.5];P = 0.003). TA-TAVR patients identified with CPTP had significant reductions in 5MWT distances (−2.22 m vs. 0.92 m [P = 0.04]) as well as trend toward significance in negative change of KCCQ12 scores OR = 18.82 (CI 95% 0.85–414.99;P = 0.06) compared to those without CPTP. Conclusions: CPTP occurs in patients undergoing TA-TAVR and is possibly associated with a decline quality of life and overall function.
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The perioperative effect of magnesium sulfate in patients with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy undergoing cardiac surgery: A double-blinded randomized study Highly accessed article p. 246
Rabie Soliman, Walid Abukhudair
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_34_18  PMID:31274484
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the cardioprotective effect of magnesium sulfate in patients with left ventricular concentric hypertrophy undergoing cardiac surgery. Design: The study was a double-blinded randomized study. Setting: This study was conducted at a cardiac center. Patients: The study included 250 patients. Intervention: The study included two groups (each = 125): Group M – the patients who received magnesium sulfate infusion (15 mg/kg/h). The infusion was started 20 min before induction, during surgery, and the first postoperative 24 h. Group C – the patients who received an equal amount of normal saline. Measurements: The variables included troponin I level, creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB) level, electrocardiograph (ECG) with automatic ST-segment analysis (leads II and V), E/A peak ratio, end-diastolic volume, cardiac index (CI), heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), mean arterial pulmonary pressure (mPAP), pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances, and pharmacological and mechanical support. Main Results: The troponin I level, CK-MB, and ECG changes were lower in Group M than Group C (P < 0.05). The E/A peak ratio and end-diastolic volume increased in Group M than Group C (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the CI and a decrease in the heart rate, mPAP, pulmonary vascular resistances, and pharmacological and mechanical support in Group M compared to Group C (P < 0.05). There were minimal changes in the MAP and systemic vascular resistance in Group M compared to Group C (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The magnesium sulfate provides a cardioprotective effect in patients with concentric ventricular hypertrophy undergoing cardiac surgery. It decreases the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction and arrhythmia. Furthermore, it decreases the requirement of pharmacological and mechanical support.
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Furosemide: Would it help to improve the lungs as evaluated by sonography and compliance during aortic coarctation surgery Highly accessed article p. 254
Ahmed Kareem Mohammed, Mai A Madkour, Hossam M Hassanien
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_55_18  PMID:31274485
Background: We evaluated furosemide on attenuating lung injury and/or edema during coarctation repair surgery. We evaluated dynamic lung compliance. We measured the degree of lung edema by means of lung ultrasound (LUS). We recorded the (PaO2/FiO2ratio) as an indicator for oxygenation. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 56 patients. Patients were divided into two groups: control group (Group C) which did not receive furosemide and furosemide group (Group F) at a dose of 1 mg/kg at induction of anesthesia. Dynamic lung compliance was calculated at induction (Cdyn 1) and at the end of the surgery (Cdyn 2). The (PaO2/FiO2ratio) was calculated at start and end of surgery as (PF 1) and (PF 2), respectively. LUS was performed after induction (LUS 1) and at the end of the surgery. LUS 2 using the 12 regions method plotting the results on scale from 0 to 36. Mechanical ventilation days were recorded. Results: Administering furosemide attenuated the lung injury/edema and other pulmonary complications. Furosemide administration improved the dynamic lung compliance in the F Group compared to the C Group. Furthermore, it increased the (PaO2/FiO2ratio) in the F Group compared to the C Group. LUS scale values were lower in the F Group compared to the C Group. There was also less postoperative mechanical ventilation days. Conclusions: The use of furosemide was accompanied by improved lung injury/edema profile as indicated by a much less drop in dynamic lung compliance, better oxygenation, a more favorable LUS scale with less parenchymal lung affection.
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Perioperative glycemic control and its outcome in patients following open heart surgery p. 260
Khalid M Siddiqui, Muhammad A Asghar, Muhammad F Khan, Fazal H Khan
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_82_18  PMID:31274486
Background: Diabetes is not uncommon in patients requiring cardiac surgery. These patients have a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality. Subsequently, diabetes represents a major medico-economic problem in both developed and developing countries. This study was designed to observe the association between glycemic control and outcome of patients after open heart surgery in adult population. Materials and Methods: Data was collected retrospectively in all patients who underwent open cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, valve, or bypass grafting with valve surgery) and survived 72 hours postoperatively and had diabetes. The study was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: Of the 129 patients included in the study, male dominated 101 (78.3%). Most frequent surgery was coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) 123 (95.3%), CABG plus aortic valve replacement 4 (3.1%), and CABG plus mitral valve replacement 2 (1.6%). Considering diabetes, only 3 (2.3%) were on diet control, 112 (86.8%) on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), whereas 9 (7%) had control on both insulin and OHA. Only 5 (3.9%) had type I diabetes. The mean fasting blood sugar (FBS) was 154.58 g/dl, and the mean duration of diabetic mellitus was observed 12.32 years. Microvascular and macrovascular complications were 26/129 (20.16%) and 17/129 (13.17%), respectively. Total 75 (58.1%) patients did not require insulin and 54 (41.9%) were treated with insulin intraoperatively to keep the blood glucose level less than 200 g/dl. Cardiac arrhythmias were frequent in the insulin group (P < 0.05), which was also associated with increased stay in the cardiac intensive care unit. Conclusion: Inadequate glycemic control during open cardiac surgery can possibly lead to increased perioperative morbidity and mortality and with decreased long-term survival and recurrent ischemic events. Therefore, aiming for blood glucose levels around 140 mg/dl appears reasonable. Further studies are required to define specific glucose ranges for a clearer definition of recommended blood glucose goals in postoperative cardiac patients for the best outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus.
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A randomized, double-blinded trial comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid and epsilon-aminocaproic acid in reducing bleeding and transfusion in cardiac surgery Highly accessed article p. 265
Jonathan Leff, Amanda Rhee, Singh Nair, Daniel Lazar, Sudheera Kokkada Sathyanarayana, Linda Shore-Lesserson
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_137_18  PMID:31274487
Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) to tranexamic acid (TA) in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergone cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Design: Randomized, double blinded study. Outcome variables collected included; baseline demographic characteristics, type of surgery, amount of 24 hour chest tube drainage, amount of 24 hour blood products administered, 30 day mortality and morbidity and length of stay. We analyzed the data using parametric and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Setting: Single center tertiary-care university hospital setting. Participants: 114 patients who had undergone cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Interventions: Standard dose of intra-operative EACA or TA was compared in patients undergone cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups when analyzing chest tube drainage. However, there was a significant difference in the administration of any transfusion (PRBC's, FFP, platelets) intra-operatively to 24 hours postoperatively, with less transfusion in patients receiving EACA compared to TA (25% vs. 44.8%, respectively P = 0.027). Additionally, there was no significant difference in terms of adverse events during the one month follow up period. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that EACA and TA have similar effects on chest tube drainage but EACA is associated with fewer transfusions in CABG alone surgeries. Our results suggest that EACA can be used in a similar fashion to TA which may result in a cost and morbidity advantage.
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Assessment of untreated fresh autologous pericardium as material for construction of heart valve: Result at 5 years p. 273
Amitabh Arya, Navneet Kumar Srivastava, Shantanu Pande, Shashank Tripathi, Surendra Kumar Agarwal, Prabhat Tewari, Aditya Kapoor
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_50_18  PMID:31274488
Introduction: Tetralogy of Fallot requiring transannular repair of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) are exposed to free pulmonary insufficiency and hence inevitable right ventricular dysfunction. This study analyzes the function and structure of untreated autologous pericardium monocusp used to create a competent pulmonary valve. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 52 cases operated between December 2006 and December 2012. Untreated autologous pericardium was used for creating a competent pulmonary valve following a transannular patch. They are followed for functional and structural assessment of the pulmonary valve by echocardiography. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 fluorodeoxyglucose was performed in two cases for profiling the pulmonary valve. Results: Median age was 10.5 years (1–38). The follow-up was complete for 42 (80.76%) patients for 3 years and 25 (48.07%) patients for 5 years. The RVOT gradient was 42 mmHg (16–96) in the year of surgery, which reduced to 26 mmHg (10–58) and pulmonary insufficiency that was present in 8.3% of patients in 1st year was witnessed in 22.7% in the 5th year of follow-up. The monocusp patch was successful in creating a competent valve while maintaining its structure at 3 years; however, it became distorted and retracted at 5 years of follow-up. There was no calcification in any of the patients. PET-computed tomography confirmed the uptake of glucose by monocusp at 1 year of follow-up. Conclusion: The untreated autologous pericardium functioned well when it was used to create a competent pulmonary valve at short term and midterm. Although it changed in its structure; there was no calcification at 5 years of follow-up.
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Refractory angina frequencies during 7 weeks treatment by enhanced external counterpulsation in coronary artery disease patients with and without diabetes p. 278
Farzad Sahebjami, Fatemeh Rezvan Madani, Saeid Komasi, Behzad Heydarpour, Mozhgan Saeidi, Kobra Ezzati, Parvin Ezzati
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_86_18  PMID:31274489
Background: Refractory angina is a clinical diagnosis which implies to chronic pain due to coronary artery insufficiency and it is often resistant to routine cardiac treatment. The present study conducted to compare changes in refractory angina frequencies during 7 weeks treatment by enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with and without diabetes. Methods: In this retrospective study, 94 CAD patients (30 diabetics vs. 64 nondiabetics) who referred to cardiac rehabilitation department of Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, during January 2006–2014 were assessed. The interventional method was EECP and medical records and frequencies of self-reported chest pain were research instruments. Data were analyzed through Chi-square test, mixed repeated measures, and Bonferroni test. Results: Frequencies of pain in both diabetic and nondiabetic groups during 7 weeks had linear reduction, but this reduction was significant only among nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, the significant reduction in frequencies of pain among this group begins after the 5th week. Discussion: Diabetes is one of the obstacles to the successful control of pain frequencies by the EECP in patients with CAD. Future studies may pay attention to the confounding role of diabetes in improving the severity of chest pain.
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COMMENTARY Top

Aortic counterpulsation for myocardial support: Towards a new paradigm p. 283
Arindam Choudhury
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_226_18  PMID:31274490
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Comparison of sedation between dexmedetomidine and propofol during transesophageal echocardiography: A randomized controlled trial p. 285
Azin Alizadehasl, Anita Sadeghpour, Ziae Totonchi, Rasoul Azarfarin, Saeid Rahimi, Amir Hendiani
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_42_18  PMID:31274491
Background: This study aimed to compare sedation characteristics of dexmedetomidine (Dex) and propofol during transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in cardiac patients. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 65 cardiac patients, who underwent TEE in a referral heart hospital. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: Dex (n = 34) and propofol (n = 31). The depth of sedation in the patients was assessed at 5-min intervals until the end of the TEE examination. The patient, physicians' satisfaction was recorded. Furthermore, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, peripheral oxygen saturation, and the bispectral index (BIS) of the patients were measured. The occurrence of apnea, hypotension or bradycardia was documented. Results: Demographic variables were similar in both groups. Time from the beginning of sedation to the start of TEE was significantly longer in the Dex group (P = 0.01). Duration of the TEE examination was not different between the two groups. Interestingly, the recovery time was shorter in the Dex group than in the propofol group. There were no significant differences regarding patient and physician satisfaction with sedation quality. Hemodynamic profile was mainly similar in both groups. There was a significantly lower BIS level in the Dex group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of apnea or hypotension between the groups. Conclusions: Time from the beginning of sedation with Dex was longer than that with propofol. However, Dex was able to provide satisfactory sedation levels, hemodynamic stability, short recovery time, and acceptable patient and practitioner satisfaction during TEE in our cardiac patients.
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Post-thoracotomy ipsilateral shoulder pain: What should be preferred to optimize it - phrenic nerve infiltration or paracetamol infusion? p. 291
Sobia Manzoor, Talib Khan, Syed Amer Zahoor, Shaqul Qamar Wani, Jan Mohamad Rather, Shaista Yaqoob, Zulfiqar Ali, Zubair Ashraf Hakeem, Bashir Ahmad Dar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_76_18  PMID:31274492
Background: Post thoracotomy ipsilateral shoulder pain (PTISP) is a distressing and highly prevalent problem after thoracic surgery and has not received much attention despite the incidence as high as 85%. Objectives: To study the effect of phrenic nerve infiltration with Ropivacaine compared to paracetamol infusion on PTISP in thoracotomy patients with epidural analgesia as standard mode of incisional analgesia in both the groups. Study Design: Prospective Randomised and Double Blind Study. Methods: 126 adult patients were divided randomly into 2 groups, “Group A (Phrenic Nerve Infiltration Group) received 10 mL of 0.2% Ropivacaine close to the diaphragm into the periphrenic fat pad” and “Group B (Paracetamol Infusion Group) received 20mg/kg paracetamol infusion” 30 minutes prior to chest closure respectively. A blinded observer assessed the patients PTISP using the VAS score at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours (h) postoperatively. The time and number of any rescue analgesic medication were recorded. Results: PTISP was relieved significantly in Group A (25.4℅) as compared to Group B (61.9℅), with significantly higher mean duration of analgesia in Group A. The mean time for first rescue analgesia was significantly higher in Group A (11.1 ± 7.47 hours) than in Group B (7.40 ± 5.30 hours). The number of rescue analgesic required was less in Group A 1.6 ± 1.16 as compared to Group B 2.9 ± 1.37 (P value <0.5). Conclusions: Phrenic Nerve Infiltration significantly reduced the incidence and delayed the onset of PTISP as compared to paracetamol infusion and was not associated with any adverse effects.
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Selection of appropriate statistical methods for data analysis p. 297
Prabhaker Mishra, Chandra Mani Pandey, Uttam Singh, Amit Keshri, Mayilvaganan Sabaretnam
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_248_18  PMID:31274493
In biostatistics, for each of the specific situation, statistical methods are available for analysis and interpretation of the data. To select the appropriate statistical method, one need to know the assumption and conditions of the statistical methods, so that proper statistical method can be selected for data analysis. Two main statistical methods are used in data analysis: descriptive statistics, which summarizes data using indexes such as mean and median and another is inferential statistics, which draw conclusions from data using statistical tests such as student's t-test. Selection of appropriate statistical method depends on the following three things: Aim and objective of the study, Type and distribution of the data used, and Nature of the observations (paired/unpaired). All type of statistical methods that are used to compare the means are called parametric while statistical methods used to compare other than means (ex-median/mean ranks/proportions) are called nonparametric methods. In the present article, we have discussed the parametric and non-parametric methods, their assumptions, and how to select appropriate statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of the biomedical data.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Focus-assessed transthoracic echocardiography: Implications in perioperative and intensive care Highly accessed article p. 302
Amarja Sachin Nagre
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_88_18  PMID:31274494
Transthoracic echocardiography is a potent and appealing diagnostic tool by virtue of rapidity, noninvasiveness, and repeatability. Focus-assessed transthoracic echocardiography (FATE) forms quick guidance to interpret the echocardiographic information and relates it to the clinical context. It can be applied in the perioperative period, intensive care units (ICUs), and emergency situations, in trauma and as resuscitation aids. FATE intents to assess cardiac function including contractility, chamber size and hypertrophy, valvular dysfunction, cardiac tamponade, and pericardial and pleural effusions. Thence, FATE has become a quintessential scanning tool perioperatively and in ICUs.
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Perioperative takotsubo cardiomyopathy: Implications for anesthesiologist p. 309
Shvetank Agarwal, Chinar Sanghvi, Nadine Odo, Manuel R Castresana
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_71_18  PMID:31274495
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is characterized by transient ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease that may be triggered by an acute medical illness or intense physical or emotional stress. TCM is often confused with acute myocardial infarction given the similar electrocardiographic changes, cardiac enzymes, hemodynamic perturbations, and myocardial wall motion abnormalities. In the perioperative setting, the clinical picture may be more confusing because of the effect of anesthesia as well as hemodynamic changes related to the surgery itself. However, awareness of various other diagnostic modalities may enable clinicians to distinguish between the two, more systematically and with greater certainty. Despite the large body of literature, there still seems to be an overall paucity in our understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical characteristics, natural history, and management of this syndrome, especially in the perioperative setting. This narrative review seeks to present and synthesize the most recent literature on TCM and to identify gaps in current knowledge which can become the basis for future research.
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INTERESTING IMAGE Top

Sudden appearance of new clot p. 316
Monish S Raut, Vijay Mohan Hanjoora
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_97_18  PMID:31274496
A patient having mitral stenosis with chronic atrial fibrillation, large left atrium, and spontaneous echo contrast is expected to have clot in LA or LAA. TEE is more sensitive to detect thrombus in LA and LAA than transthoracic echocardiography. However, false-negative results can still occur due to multilobed LAA, and a thrombus can be potentially missed.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Troubleshooting for epileptiform activity during percutaneous transvenous mitral commisurotomy p. 318
Rohini Mayur Balaji, Manasa Dhananjaya, Ashwini Thimmarayappa
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_54_18  PMID:31274497
Percutaneous transvenous mitral commisurotomy (PTMC) is a frequently used minimally invasive procedure for patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis. However, it is not without complications. Few complications which are distinctive to the procedure are thromboembolism, left-to-right shunts, mitral regurgitation, cardiac tamponade and complete heart block. We present the case of a 32-year-old female patient scheduled for a PTMC, who had multiple complications during the procedure. She developed cardiac tamponade for which pericardiocentesis and autotransfusion was done. Subsequently she exhibited epileptiform activity for which there was a diagnostic dilemma due to the presence of multiple confounding factors. However, she had a complete recovery without any residual sequelae at the time of discharge.
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Inadequacy of near-infrared spectroscopy cerebral oximetry monitoring for detecting neurological complication p. 321
BP S Ghumman, Alok Kumar, Sameer Kumar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_147_18  PMID:31274498
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) cerebral oximetry is an established and standard monitoring modality for surgery under extracorporeal circulation with circulatory arrest. It helps to reduce the neurological complication, but in many instances, it becomes not only technically challenging but also is difficult to interpret and take corrective action based on the NIRS values. In this case study, we aimed to present the inadequacy of cerebral oximetry for detecting neurological complication.
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Complete atrioventricular block during thoracic endovascular aortic repair p. 325
Hao-Nung Shyu, Po-Han Li, Shih-Kai Liu, Yi-Ying Chiang
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_68_18  PMID:31274499
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and acute aortic syndrome (AAS) are both life-threatening emergencies. We report a case of ACS with thoracic aneurysm. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was arranged. However, perioperative complete atrioventricular block occurred and soon progressed to ST-elevation myocardial infarction. In the case of chest discomfort with elevated troponin I and thoracic aneurysm, it is of tremendous importance to cope with both ACS and the possible AAS. In the era of hybrid operation room, coronary catheterization and intervention first followed by TEVAR may provide timely and more comprehensive treatment.
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Chronic sternal wound fistula after coronary artery bypass surgery: A case series p. 328
Shahriar Mali, Noushin Abyari, Mohmmadtaghi Sarebanhassanabadi
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_61_18  PMID:31274500
Chronic extensive infection of the sternal wound may be a serious problem in patients undergoing sternotomy, especially those who have been operated for coronary artery bypass grafts. We report and evaluate the outcomes of five cases involved in chronic sternal osteomyelitis who were treated with two different strategies as follows: (1) debridement and secondary healing (conventional treatment), and (2) debridement and omental flap transfer for primary wound closure. All of the patients had acceptable results after treatment, but those who were managed by omental flap and primary wound closure had better cosmetic results and a shorter hospital stay.
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Inadvertent carotid artery cannulation with malposition of catheter tip in right ventricle in tetralogy of fallot patient undergoing total intracardiac repair – A case report p. 331
Sunder Lal Negi, Srinath Damodaran, Krishna P Gaurav, Prashant Sevta, Ankush Singla
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_136_18  PMID:31274501
Central venous catheterization is an essential procedure in patient undergoing cardiac surgery, as it provides central venous pressure monitoring, fluid administration, and infusion of inotropes during perioperative period. In the cardiac surgery, where the patients are anticoagulated, an inadvertent arterial puncture can lead to serious complications. Hematoma following inadvertent arterial puncture is one of the common complications, which can compromise cerebral circulation. We report a rare case of inadvertent cannulation of internal carotid artery in patients of tetralogy of Fallot undergoing intracardiac repair during an attempt to cannulate internal jugular vein.
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Gerbode defect formation two decades after tetrology of fallot repair p. 334
Paurush Ambesh, Melissa Hirsch, Aviva Tobin-Hess, Danish Kazmi, Aditya Kapoor, Vijay Shetty, Stephan Kamholz
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_118_18  PMID:31274502
Although most intracardiac defects are congenital, a small fraction may be acquired during life. The Gerbode defect is an abnormal anatomical connection between the left ventricle and the right atrium. We describe herein a patient who initially underwent repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Years after TOF repair, he developed severe dyspnea. Extensive evaluation revealed that he had developed a Gerbode defect. Very few cases of acquired Gerbode defect have been previously reported. Management options are predominantly surgical interventions.
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Inferior vena cava filter removal – Hope for the best and prepare for the worst: An anesthesiology perspective p. 337
Salomon Poliwoda, Rekhaben Suthar, Nicholas Suraci, Pedro Garcia, Vicente Behrens, Howard Goldman
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_159_18  PMID:31274503
A patient presented to our institution for an elective removal of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter under local anesthesia. Once removed, it was noticed that the filter had a missing secondary leg. The patient had a chest CT done which showed a hyper-attenuating structure in the region of the tricuspid valve highly suspicious for the fractured strut of the filter. Upon these findings, the patient was taken once again to the surgical suite for an endovascular retrieval of the strut. For fear of a possible cardiac injury and a potential need for a sternotomy, the patient received general anesthesia and was placed with appropriate IV access and full cardiac monitors. The strut was removed successfully without any complications. Despite the relative benign nature of this endovascular procedure, one should always be prepared for an appropriate resuscitation in case of an occurrence of a surgical complication.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

Preoperative “R wave amplitude variation” on electrocardiogram predicts severe hypovolemia p. 340
Sohan Lal Solanki, Pooja P Kumar, Reshma P Ambulkar
DOI:10.4103/aca.ACA_70_18  PMID:31274504
Preoperative fasting is essential to prevent aspiration and associated complications. However, quite often patients end up fasting for 12 h or more due to changes in the operating room schedules, delays, and postponements. Preoperative fasting may lead to a fluid deficit, which may contribute to perioperative discomfort and morbidity. We report a case of 44-year-old female posted for total mastectomy with axillary clearance for carcinoma breast, with prolonged fasting where preoperative R wave amplitude variation along with associated changes in the plethysmograph was noticed on the monitor. 500 milliliters of lactated ringer solution was administered before induction of anesthesia, by the time R wave amplitude variation decreased. Variations in plethysmography became normal after 1 L of fluid administration after induction of anesthesia. Gross R wave amplitude variation is not a very common finding and may predict severe hypovolemia in preoperative area in prolonged fasting patients.
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