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Prophylactic preoperative levosimendan for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: Single-centered randomized prospective study


Department of Anesthesiology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Pushkar Mahendra Desai
A703, Noopur Apartments, PG Rood, Malad West, Mumbai - 400 064, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_178_17

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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 123-128

 

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Background: Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) is often complicated by hemodynamic instability, especially in patients with prior left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and appropriate choice of inotrope plays a vital role in perioperative management of these patients. Aim and Objective: To study hemodynamic effects and immediate outcome of prophylactic infusion of levosimendan in patients with the LV dysfunction undergoing OPCAB surgery and whether this strategy helps in successful conduct of OPCAB surgery. Materials and Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 60 patients posted for elective OPCAB surgery were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30 each). Patients with the LV ejection fraction <30% were included. Study group was started on injection levosimendan (@ 0.1 μg/kg/min) in the previous night before surgery and continued for 24 h including intraoperative period. Hemodynamic monitoring included heart rate, invasive blood pressure, cardiac index (CI), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), pulse oximetry, and arterial blood gases with serum lactates at as T0 (baseline), T1 (15 min after obtuse marginal and/or PDA anastomoses), T2 (at end of surgery), T3 (6 h after surgery in Intensive Care Unit [ICU]), T4 (12 h after surgery), and T5 (24 h after surgery in ICU). Vasopressor was added to maintain mean arterial pressure >60 mmHg. Chi-square/Fisher's exact/Mid P exact test and Student's t-tests were applied for categorical and continuous data. Results: CI was greater and PCWP reduced significantly in Group L during intraoperative and early postoperative period. Serum lactate concentration was lower in patients pretreated with levosimendan. Incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) (36.6 vs. 6.6%; P = 0.01), low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) (30% vs. 6%; P = 0.02), and acute kidney injury (23.3% vs. 6.7%; P = 0.04) was less in Group L. Three patients (10%) in control group required conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as compared to none in the study group. There was no difference regarding ICU or hospital stay and mortality in both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative levosimendan helps in successful conduct of OPCAB and reduces the incidence of LCOS, POAF, conversion to CPB, and requirement of intra-aortic balloon pump.






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Department of Anesthesiology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Pushkar Mahendra Desai
A703, Noopur Apartments, PG Rood, Malad West, Mumbai - 400 064, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_178_17

Rights and Permissions

Background: Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) is often complicated by hemodynamic instability, especially in patients with prior left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and appropriate choice of inotrope plays a vital role in perioperative management of these patients. Aim and Objective: To study hemodynamic effects and immediate outcome of prophylactic infusion of levosimendan in patients with the LV dysfunction undergoing OPCAB surgery and whether this strategy helps in successful conduct of OPCAB surgery. Materials and Methods: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 60 patients posted for elective OPCAB surgery were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30 each). Patients with the LV ejection fraction <30% were included. Study group was started on injection levosimendan (@ 0.1 μg/kg/min) in the previous night before surgery and continued for 24 h including intraoperative period. Hemodynamic monitoring included heart rate, invasive blood pressure, cardiac index (CI), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), pulse oximetry, and arterial blood gases with serum lactates at as T0 (baseline), T1 (15 min after obtuse marginal and/or PDA anastomoses), T2 (at end of surgery), T3 (6 h after surgery in Intensive Care Unit [ICU]), T4 (12 h after surgery), and T5 (24 h after surgery in ICU). Vasopressor was added to maintain mean arterial pressure >60 mmHg. Chi-square/Fisher's exact/Mid P exact test and Student's t-tests were applied for categorical and continuous data. Results: CI was greater and PCWP reduced significantly in Group L during intraoperative and early postoperative period. Serum lactate concentration was lower in patients pretreated with levosimendan. Incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) (36.6 vs. 6.6%; P = 0.01), low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) (30% vs. 6%; P = 0.02), and acute kidney injury (23.3% vs. 6.7%; P = 0.04) was less in Group L. Three patients (10%) in control group required conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) as compared to none in the study group. There was no difference regarding ICU or hospital stay and mortality in both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative levosimendan helps in successful conduct of OPCAB and reduces the incidence of LCOS, POAF, conversion to CPB, and requirement of intra-aortic balloon pump.






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