Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Home | About us | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Submission | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
Users online: 1833 Small font size Default font size Increase font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page


    Advanced search

    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded65    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Table of Contents
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 276-277
Hyperhomocysteinemia and left ventricular thrombus

Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication6-Apr-2017

How to cite this article:
Raut MS, Maheshwari A. Hyperhomocysteinemia and left ventricular thrombus. Ann Card Anaesth 2017;20:276-7

How to cite this URL:
Raut MS, Maheshwari A. Hyperhomocysteinemia and left ventricular thrombus. Ann Card Anaesth [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Nov 19];20:276-7. Available from:

The Editor,

We read with great interest the article – Left ventricular mass: A tumor or a thrombus diagnostic dilemma, describing the narrated differential diagnosis.[1] Left ventricular thrombus formation is commonly observed in patients with myocardial infarction with systolic dysfunction. However, it becomes difficult to come to the certain diagnosis when such situation occurs in patients with absent history of coronary artery disease and normal ventricular function.[2] While considering various hypercoagulable conditions, hyperhomocysteinemia should be evaluated, especially in the Indian context.

Hyperhomocysteinemia is an important independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbid events.[3] The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in Indian population is reported to be 52%–84%.[4] Incidence of homocystinuria, all over the world, varies between 1 in 50,000 and 1 in 200,000. Mutations in the genes for enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism – cystathionine-beta-synthase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, or methionine synthase – cause raised level of homocysteine in the blood.

In hyperhomocysteinemia, this amino acid undergoes auto-oxidation to produce oxygen-free radicals, which can promote atherosclerosis. It also inhibits the antithrombotic action of thrombomodulin. This in turn activates protein C by thrombin. Both these actions lead to thrombosis in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been independently associated with left ventricular thrombus formation. This condition can also present as left atrial thrombus and left ventricular mass in patients with sinus rhythm.[5] Left ventricular thrombus formation has also been reported in patients with normal left ventricular dimensions and systolic function due to hypercoagulable states such as raised homocysteine level.[6] In study of patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction following thrombolytic therapy, hyperhomocysteinemia independently raises the risk for the development of left ventricular thrombus.[7] In prospective investigational study of 936 patients, hyperhomocysteinemia predicts cardiovascular mortality and low left ventricular ejection fraction in hypertensive patients independent of coronary artery disease and history of myocardial infarction. Such left ventricular systolic dysfunction itself becomes significant risk factor to develop left ventricular thrombus.[8]

It is essential to consider homocysteinemia as important differential diagnosis in patients with cardiac thrombosis. Thrombectomy can solve the problem temporarily; however, along with proper anticoagulation, such patients require administration of Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, and folate regardless of the levels before treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk further. Folic acid and Vitamin B12 along with pyridoxine (100–500 mg/day) are prescribed. These vitamins provide clinical benefit by effectively reducing the homocysteine levels. Antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants can be suggested for secondary stroke prevention. Patients who are pyridoxine insensitive are advised low-methionine diet with betaine supplementation. Effectiveness of the treatment can be monitored by measuring homocysteine levels.[9] Early diagnosis of homocysteinemia and prophylactic dietary and medical care plays a key role in reducing complications and improving long-term prognosis.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Dinesh Kumar US, Shetty SP, Sujay KR, Wali M. Left ventricular mass: A tumor or a thrombus diagnostic dilemma. Ann Card Anaesth 2016;19:728-32.  Back to cited text no. 1
Raut MS, Maheshwari A, Dubey S, Joshi S. Left ventricular mass: Myxoma or thrombus? Ann Card Anaesth 2015;18:95-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Vollset SE, Refsum H, Tverdal A, Nygård O, Nordrehaug JE, Tell GS, et al. Plasma total homocysteine and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:130-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
Wadia RS, Edul NC, Bhagat S, Bandhishi S, Kulkarni R, Sontakke S, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and Vitamin B12 deficiency in Ischaemic strokes in India. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2004;7:387-92.  Back to cited text no. 4
  [Full text]  
Cupini LM, De Simone R. Hyperhomocysteinemia and left atrial thrombus in a stroke patient with sinus rhythm. Stroke 2003;34:e143-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
Atas H, Samadov F, Sunbul M, Cincin A, Delil K, Mutlu B. Two cases of acute myocarditis with multiple intracardiac thrombi: The role of hypercoagulable states. Heart Views 2014;15:22-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Orhan AL, Okuyan E, Okcun B, Nurkalem Z, Sayar N, Soylu O, et al. Plasma homocysteine level and left ventricular thrombus formation in acute anterior myocardial infarction patients following thrombolytic therapy with t-PA. Thromb Res 2009;124:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
Cesari M, Zanchetta M, Burlina A, Pedon L, Maiolino G, Sticchi D, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia is inversely related with left ventricular ejection fraction and predicts cardiovascular mortality in high-risk coronary artery disease hypertensives. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25:115-21.  Back to cited text no. 8
Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, Spence JD, Pettigrew LC, Howard VJ, et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the vitamin intervention for stroke prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:565-75.  Back to cited text no. 9

Correspondence Address:
Monish S Raut
Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_203_16

Rights and Permissions