Ziyad O Knio1, Mario Montealegre-Gallegos2, Lu Yeh3, Bilal Chaudary2, Jelliffe Jeganathan2, Robina Matyal2, Kamal R Khabbaz1, David C Liu1, Venkatachalam Senthilnathan1, Feroze Mahmood2
1 Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
3 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, University Medical Center, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
Background: Traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid annulus (TA) dilation is based on single-frame measurements of the septolateral (S-L) dimension. This may not represent either the axis or the extent of dynamism through the entire cardiac cycle. In this study, we used real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to analyze geometric changes in multiple axes of the TA throughout the cardiac cycle in patients without right ventricular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: R-wave-gated 3D TEE images of the TA were acquired in 39 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. The patients with abnormal right ventricular/tricuspid structure or function were excluded from the study. For each patient, eight points along the TA were traced in the 3D dataset and used to reconstruct the TA at four stages of the cardiac cycle (end- and mid-systole, end- and mid-diastole). Statistical analyses were applied to determine whether TA area, perimeter, axes, and planarity changed significantly over each stage of the cardiac cycle. Results: TA area (P = 0.012) and perimeter (P = 0.024) both changed significantly over the cardiac cycle. Of all the axes, only the posterolateral-anteroseptal demonstrated significant dynamism (P < 0.001). There was also a significant displacement in the vertical axis between the points and the regression plane in end-systole (P < 0.001), mid-diastole (P = 0.014), and mid-systole (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The TA demonstrates selective dynamism over the cardiac cycle, and its axis of maximal dynamism is different from the axis (S-L) that is routinely measured with 2D TEE.
1 Deaconess Road, CC454, Boston, MA 02215
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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