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The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot


1 Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, C. N. Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, C. N. Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor
Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.179589

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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 217-224

 

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Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0), postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1), and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively). The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial - lactate delayed]/lactate initial) ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1-T6, T1-T12, T1-T18, and T1-T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P < 0.05) and low-blood lactate clearance rate during 24 h (P < 0.05) in comparison to the survivors. Lactate clearance was significantly higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors for the T1-T6 period (19.55 ± 14.28 vs. 5.24 ± 27.79%, P = 0.009) and remained significantly higher for each studied interval in first 24 h. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of statistically significant univariate variables showed early lactate clearance to have a significant relationship with mortality. Patients with a lactate clearance >10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance <10%, in the early postoperative period, had improved outcome and lower mortality. Conclusion: Lactate clearance in the early postoperative period (6 h) is associated with decreased mortality rate. Patients with higher lactate clearance (>10%) after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.






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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE: JANAK MEHTA AWARD WINNER 2015-16
 




1 Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, C. N. Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, C. N. Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor
Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.179589

Rights and Permissions

Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0), postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1), and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively). The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial - lactate delayed]/lactate initial) ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1-T6, T1-T12, T1-T18, and T1-T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P < 0.05) and low-blood lactate clearance rate during 24 h (P < 0.05) in comparison to the survivors. Lactate clearance was significantly higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors for the T1-T6 period (19.55 ± 14.28 vs. 5.24 ± 27.79%, P = 0.009) and remained significantly higher for each studied interval in first 24 h. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of statistically significant univariate variables showed early lactate clearance to have a significant relationship with mortality. Patients with a lactate clearance >10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance <10%, in the early postoperative period, had improved outcome and lower mortality. Conclusion: Lactate clearance in the early postoperative period (6 h) is associated with decreased mortality rate. Patients with higher lactate clearance (>10%) after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.






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