Murali Chakravarthy1, Gubbihalli Sunilkumar2, Sumant Pargaonkar1, Rajathadri Hosur1, Chidananda Harivelam1, Deepak Kavaraganahalli1, Pradeep Srinivasan2
1 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Relief, Fortis Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Radiology, Fortis Hospitals, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of induced apnea on quality of cardiopulmonary structures during computerized tomographic (CT) angiography images in children with congenital heart diseases. Methods: Pediatric patients with congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac CT angiography at our facility in the past 3 years participated in this study. The earlier patients underwent cardiac CT angiography without induced apnea and while, later, apnea was induced in patients, which was followed by electrocardiogram gated cardiac CT angiography. General anesthesia was induced using sleep dose of intravenous propofol. After the initial check CT, on request by the radiologist, apnea was induced by the anesthesiologist by administering 1 mg/kg of intravenous suxamethonium. Soon after apnea ensued, the contrast was injected, and CT angiogram carried out. CT images in the "apnea group" were compared with those in "nonapnea group." After the completion of the procedure, the patients were mask ventilated with 100% oxygen till the spontaneous ventilation was restored. Results: We studied 46 patients, of whom 36 with apnea and yet another 10 without. The quality of the image, visualization of structures such as cardiac wall, outflow tracts, lung field, aortopulmonary shunts, and coronary arteries were analyzed and subjected to statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U, Fischer's exact test and Pearson's Chi-square test). In the induced apnea group, overall image quality was considered excellent in 89% (n = 33) of the studies, while in the "no apnea group," only 30% of studies were excellent. Absent or minimal motion artifacts were seen in a majority of the studies in apnea group (94%). In the nonapnea group, the respiratory and body motion artifacts were severe in 50%, moderate in 30%, and minimal in 20%, but they were significantly lesser in the apnea group. All the studied parameters were statistically significant in the apnea group in contrast to nonapnea group (P < 0.000). Conclusion: The image quality of cardiac CT angiography greatly improves, and motion artifact significantly decreases with the use of induced apnea in pediatrics patients being evaluated for congenital heart disease. This technique poses no additional morbidity of significance.
Dr. Murali Chakravarthy
Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Relief, Fortis Hospitals, Bengaluru - 560 076, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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