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Resistance in gram-negative bacilli in a cardiac intensive care unit in India: Risk factors and outcome


1 Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, India
2 Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Medical College of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Correspondence Address:
Yatin Mehta
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.38445

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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-26

 

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The objective of this study was to compare the risk factors and outcome of patients with preexisting resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB) with those who develop sensitive GNB in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU). Of the 3161 patients ( n = 3,161) admitted to the ICU during the study period, 130 (4.11%) developed health care-associated infections (HAIs) with GNB and were included in the cohort study. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37.8%) was the most common organism isolated followed by Klebsiella species (24.2%), E. coli (22.0%), Enterobacter species (6.1%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.7%), Acinetobacter species (1.3%), Serratia marcescens (0.8%), Weeksella virosa (0.4%) and Burkholderia cepacia (0.4%). Univariate analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with the antibiotic-resistant GNB: females ( P = 0.018), re-exploration ( P = 0.004), valve surgery ( P = 0.003), duration of central venous catheter ( P < 0.001), duration of mechanical ventilation ( P < 0.001), duration of intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation ( P = 0.018), duration of urinary catheter ( P < 0.001), total number of antibiotic exposures prior to the development of resistance ( P < 0.001), duration of antibiotic use prior to the development of resistance ( P = 0.014), acute physiology and age chronic health evaluation score (APACHE II), receipt of anti-pseudomonal penicillins (piperacillin-tazobactam) ( P = 0.002) and carbapenems ( P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, valve surgery (adjusted OR = 2.033; 95% CI = 1.052-3.928; P = 0.035), duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR = 1.265; 95% CI = 1.055-1.517; P = 0.011) and total number of antibiotic exposure prior to the development of resistance (adjusted OR = 1.381; 95% CI = 1.030-1.853; P = 0.031) were identified as independent risk factors for HAIs in resistant GNB. The mortality rate in patients with resistant GNB was significantly higher than those with sensitive GNB (13.9% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.03). HAI with resistant GNB, in ICU following cardiac surgery, are independently associated with the following variables: valve surgeries, duration of mechanical ventilation and prior exposure to antibiotics. The mortality rate is significantly higher among patients with resistant GNB.






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1 Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, India
2 Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Medical College of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Correspondence Address:
Yatin Mehta
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.38445

Rights and Permissions

The objective of this study was to compare the risk factors and outcome of patients with preexisting resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB) with those who develop sensitive GNB in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU). Of the 3161 patients ( n = 3,161) admitted to the ICU during the study period, 130 (4.11%) developed health care-associated infections (HAIs) with GNB and were included in the cohort study. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37.8%) was the most common organism isolated followed by Klebsiella species (24.2%), E. coli (22.0%), Enterobacter species (6.1%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.7%), Acinetobacter species (1.3%), Serratia marcescens (0.8%), Weeksella virosa (0.4%) and Burkholderia cepacia (0.4%). Univariate analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with the antibiotic-resistant GNB: females ( P = 0.018), re-exploration ( P = 0.004), valve surgery ( P = 0.003), duration of central venous catheter ( P < 0.001), duration of mechanical ventilation ( P < 0.001), duration of intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation ( P = 0.018), duration of urinary catheter ( P < 0.001), total number of antibiotic exposures prior to the development of resistance ( P < 0.001), duration of antibiotic use prior to the development of resistance ( P = 0.014), acute physiology and age chronic health evaluation score (APACHE II), receipt of anti-pseudomonal penicillins (piperacillin-tazobactam) ( P = 0.002) and carbapenems ( P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, valve surgery (adjusted OR = 2.033; 95% CI = 1.052-3.928; P = 0.035), duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR = 1.265; 95% CI = 1.055-1.517; P = 0.011) and total number of antibiotic exposure prior to the development of resistance (adjusted OR = 1.381; 95% CI = 1.030-1.853; P = 0.031) were identified as independent risk factors for HAIs in resistant GNB. The mortality rate in patients with resistant GNB was significantly higher than those with sensitive GNB (13.9% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.03). HAI with resistant GNB, in ICU following cardiac surgery, are independently associated with the following variables: valve surgeries, duration of mechanical ventilation and prior exposure to antibiotics. The mortality rate is significantly higher among patients with resistant GNB.






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